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Articulations of the upper extremity

This is an excerpt from Kinetic Anatomy 4th Edition With HKPropel Access by Robert S. Behnke,Jennifer L. Plant & Jennifer L. Plant.

Articulations of the Upper Extremity

Joint Type Bones Ligaments Movement
Shoulder girdle
Sternoclavicular Arthrodial (saddle/gliding) Sternum and clavicle Sternoclavicular (anterior, superior, and posterior)
Costoclavicular
Interclavicular
Articular disc
Elevation, depression, rotation, protraction, retraction
Acromioclavicular Arthrodial (plane) Clavicle and scapula Acromioclavicular
Coracoclavicular (conoid and trapezoid)
Coracoacromial (for protection of glenohumeral joint)
Articular disc
Elevation, depression, rotation, protraction, retraction, winging (posterior movement to keep scapula close to the thorax during scapular abduction), tipping (rotation to keep scapula close to the thorax during scapular elevation)
Shoulder joint
Glenohumeral Ball and socket Humerus and scapula Glenohumeral (superior, middle, and inferior)
Coracohumeral
Transverse humeral (keeps long-head biceps tendon in intertubercular groove)
Labrum (deepens socket of the glenoid fossa)
Capsule
Flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, internal and external rotation
Scapulothoracic (False joint) Scapula and thorax No ligaments (fascia of the serratus anterior muscle and fascia from the thorax) Elevation, depression, upward rotation and lateral tilt (abduction, protraction) and downward rotation and medial tilt (adduction, retraction) of the scapula on the thorax
Elbow
Humeroulnar Hinge Humerus and ulna Capsule
Medial (ulnar) collateral (3 bands: anterior, posterior, and transverse)
Flexion, extension
Radiohumeral Irregular (gliding) Humerus and radius Lateral (radial) collateral
Annular
Flexion, extension, rotation (pronation, supination)
Radioulnar (proximal) Pivot Radius and ulna Annular Pronation, supination
Forearm
Radioulnar (middle) Syndesmosis Radius and ulna Oblique cord
Interosseous membrane
Slight (if any)
Radioulnar (distal) Pivot Radius and ulna (and articular disc) Capsule
Dorsal radioulnar
Volar (palmar) radioulnar
Pronation, supination
Wrist
Radiocarpal Condyloid (gliding) Radius, scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum Capsule
Radial collateral
Ulnar collateral
Dorsal radioulnar
Volar (palmar) radioulnar
Flexion, extension, abduction (radial deviation), adduction (ulnar deviation)
Ulnarcarpal (not part of the wrist) Irregular (gliding) Ulna, pisiform, triquetrum Capsule
Ulnar collateral
Articular disc
Gliding
Wrist: intercarpals
Proximal row Arthrodial (gliding) Radius, scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum Capsule
Flexor (volar) retinaculum
Extensor (dorsal) retinaculum
Radial collateral
Ulnar collateral
Volar (palmar) intercarpal
Dorsal intercarpal
Gliding
Middle Hinge (gliding) Proximal and distal rows of carpals Capsule
Volar (palmar) intercarpal
Dorsal intercarpal
Interosseous intercarpal
Radial collateral
Ulnar collateral
Pisohamate
Pisometacarpal
Gliding
Distal row Irregular (gliding) Trapezius, trapezoid, capitate, hamate Capsule
Volar (palmar) intercarpal
Dorsal intercarpal
Interosseous intercarpal
Gliding
Hand and fingers
Carpometacarpal Modified saddle Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate, metacarpals (4) Capsule
Volar carpometacarpal
Dorsal carpometacarpal
Interosseous carpometacarpal
Volar accessory
Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, slight opposition of fifth
Metacarpophalangeal Condyloid Metacarpals (4) and proximal phalanges (4) Transverse metacarpal
Capsule
Radial collateral
Ulnar collateral
Volar accessory
Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction
Proximal interphalangeal Hinge Proximal phalanges (4) and middle phalanges (4) Capsule
Radial collateral
Ulnar collateral
Volar accessory
Flexion, extension
Distal interphalangeal Hinge Middle phalanges (4) and distal phalanges (4) Capsule
Radial collateral
Ulnar collateral
Volar accessory
Flexion, extension
Thumb
Carpometacarpal Saddle Trapezium and 1st metacarpal Capsule Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, opposition
Metacarpophalangeal Hinge 1st metacarpal and proximal phalanx Capsule
Radial collateral
Ulnar collateral
Dorsal accessory
Flexion, extension
Interphalangeal Hinge Proximal phalanx and distal phalanx Capsule
Radial collateral
Ulnar collateral
Volar accessory
Flexion, extension

Muscles, Nerves, and Blood Supply of the Upper Extremity

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Nerve Blood supply
Shoulder girdle, anterior
Pectoralis minor 3rd to 5th ribs Coracoid process of scapula Downward rotation of scapula Medial anterior thoracic Lateral thoracic and thoracoacromial branches of axillary
Serratus anterior Upper 9 ribs Vertebral border of scapula Upward rotation of scapula Long thoracic Lateral thoracic and subscapular branches of axillary, transverse cervical branch of thyrocervical branch of subclavian
Subclavian 1st rib Subclavian groove of clavicle Ligamentous action at sternoclavicular joint Medial anterior thoracic Clavicular branch of thoracoacromial branch of axillary thoracic
Shoulder girdle, posterior
Levator scapulae Transverse processes of first 4 cervical vertebrae Vertical border of scapula Elevation and downward rotation of scapula Dorsal scapular Transverse cervical branch of thyrocervical and intercostals
Rhomboids (major and minor) Spines of vertebrae C7 to T5 Vertebral border of scapula Elevation and downward rotation of scapula Dorsal scapular Transverse cervical branch of thyrocervical branch of subclavian
Trapezius External occipital protuberance, all 7 cervical and 12 thoracic spinous processes Spine of scapula, acromion process, lateral 1/3 of posterior clavicle Elevation, upward and downward rotation, and adduction of scapula C2, C3, C4, and spinal accessory (11th cranial) Transverse cervical branch of thyrocervical branch of subclavian
Shoulder joint, anterior
Pectoralis major 2nd to 6th ribs, sternum, medial 1/2 of clavicle Inferior to greater tuberosity of humerus in area of surgical neck Flexion, adduction, and internal rotation of GH joint Lateral and medial anterior thoracic Lateral thoracic and thoracoacromial branches of axillary
Coracobrachialis Coracoid process of scapula Middle 1/3 of medial surface of humerus Flexion and adduction of GH joint Musculocutaneous Brachial
Biceps brachii (long head) Supraglenoid tubercle Radial tuberosity Abduction and flexion of GH joint, flexion of elbow, supination of forearm Musculocutaneous Brachial
Biceps brachii (short head) Coracoid process of scapula Radial tuberosity Adduction and flexion of GH joint, flexion of elbow, supination of forearm Musculocutaneous Brachial
Subscapularis Subscapular fossa Lesser tuberosity of humerus Internal rotation and flexion of GH joint, GH joint stability Subscapular branch from brachial plexus Subscapular branch of axillary, transverse cervical and transverse scapular branches of thyrocervical
Shoulder joint, superior
Deltoid (clavicular) Lateral 1/3 of anterior border of clavicle Deltoid tubercle Flexion, adduction, and internal rotation of GH joint (above horizontal, abduction) Axillary Anterior and posterior humeral circumflex, brachial, thoracoacromial
Deltoid (acromial) Lateral border of acromion process Deltoid tubercle Abduction of GH joint
Deltoid (scapular) Inferior lip of spine of scapula Deltoid tubercle Extension, adduction, and external rotation of GH joint (above horizontal, abduction)
Supraspinatus Supraspinous fossa of scapula Proximal facet of greater tuberosity of humerus Abduction of GH joint, GH joint stability Suprascapular from C5 through brachial plexus Transverse cervical and transverse scapular branches of thyrocervical and subscapular
Shoulder joint, posterior
Infraspinatus Infraspinatus fossa of spine of scapula Middle facet of greater tuberosity of humerus External rotation and extension of GH joint, GH joint stability Suprascapular through brachial plexus Transverse cervical and transverse scapular branches of thyrocervical
Teres minor Upper 2/3 of lateral border of scapula Distal facet of greater tuberosity of humerus External rotation, extension, and adduction of GH joint; GH joint stability Axillary through brachial plexus Posterior humeral circumflex and subscapular
Shoulder joint, inferior
Latissimus dorsi Spinous processes of lower 6 thoracic and all lumbar vertebrae, ilium, lower 3 ribs, inferior angle of scapula Intertubercular groove Internal rotation, extension, and adduction of GH joint Thoracodorsal nerve and posterior rami of lower 6 thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves Subscapular branch of axillary, transverse cervical branch of thyrocervical branch of subclavian
Teres major Inferior 1/3 of lateral border and inferior angle of scapula Beneath the lesser tuberosity on anterior humerus Internal rotation, extension, and adduction of GH joint Subscapular through brachial plexus Subscapular branch of axillary
Triceps brachii (long head) Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Olecranon process of ulna Extension and adduction of GH joint Radial Posterior humeral circumflex, profundus branch of brachial
Elbow joint, anterior
Brachialis Distal 1/3 of anterior surface of humerus Coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna Flexion of elbow Musculocutaneous Brachial
Brachioradialis Proximal aspect of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus Lateral aspect of styloid process of radius Flexion of elbow, supination of forearm Radial Radial
Biceps brachii (long head) Supraglenoid tubercle Radial tuberosity Abduction and flexion of GH joint, flexion of elbow, supination of forearm Musculocutaneous Brachial
Biceps brachii (short head) Coracoid process of scapula Radial tuberosity Adduction and flexion of GH joint, flexion of elbow, supination of forearm Musculocutaneous Brachial
Elbow joint, posterior
Triceps brachii (lateral head) Proximal 1/3 of posterolateral aspect of humerus Olecranon process of ulna Extension of elbow Radial Posterior humeral circumflex, profundus branch of brachial
Triceps brachii (long head) Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Olecranon process of ulna Extension of elbow, extension and adduction of GH joint Radial Posterior humeral circumflex, profundus branch of brachial
Triceps brachii (medial head) Distal 2/3 of posteromedial aspect of humerus Olecranon process of ulna Extension of elbow Radial Posterior humeral circumflex, profundus branch of brachial
Anconeus Lateral epicondyle of humerus Radial aspect of olecranon process and dorsal surface of proximal 1/4 of ulna Extension of elbow Radial Profundus branch of brachial and dorsal interosseous
Forearm, supinators
Supinator Lateral epicondyle of humerus and supinator fossa of ulna Proximal 1/3 of lateral and volar aspect of radius Supination of forearm Radial Dorsal interosseous and radial
Biceps brachii (long head) Supraglenoid tubercle Radial tuberosity Abduction and flexion of GH joint, flexion of elbow, supination of forearm Musculocutaneous Brachial
Biceps brachii (short head) Coracoid process of scapula Radial tuberosity Adduction and flexion of GH joint, flexion of elbow, supination of forearm Musculocutaneous Brachial
Forearm, pronators
Pronator teres Common flexor tendon and coronoid process of ulna Middle of lateral aspect of radius Pronation of forearm Median Radial branch of brachial
Pronator quadratus Distal part of volar aspect of ulna Distal part of volar aspect of radius Pronation of forearm Median Ulnar and radial
Wrist and hand, anterior wrist and extrinsic hand
Flexor carpi radialis Common flexor tendon Bases of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals Flexion and radial deviation of wrist, elbow flexion, and forearm pronation Median Radial
Flexor carpi ulnaris Common flexor tendon Pisiform, hamate, and base of 5th metacarpal Flexion and ulnar deviation of wrist, elbow flexion, and forearm supination Ulnar Ulnar branch of brachial
Flexor digitorum superficialis Common flexor tendon, coronoid process, and proximal 2/3 of radius Split tendons on each side of base of middle phalanges of 4 fingers Flexion of PIP, MP, and wrist joints Median Ulnar branch of brachial
Palmaris longus Common flexor tendon Palmar aponeurosis Flexion of wrist Median Radial branch of brachial
Flexor digitorum profundus Proximal 3/4 of coronoid process of ulna and interosseous membrane 4 tendons—passing split superficialis tendons—on bases of distal phalanges of 4 fingers Flexion of DIP, PIP, MP, and wrist joints Median and ulnar Ulnar and volar interosseous
Wrist and hand, posterior wrist and extrinsic hand
Extensor carpi radialis longus Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus Base of 2nd metacarpal Extension and radial deviation of wrist, supination of forearm Radial Radial
Extensor carpi radialis brevis Common extensor tendon Base of 3rd metacarpal Extension and radial deviation of wrist, supination of forearm Radial Radial
Extensor carpi ulnaris Common extensor tendon Base of 5th metacarpal Extension and ulnar deviation of wrist Radial Ulnar
Extensor digitorum communis Common extensor tendon Bases of distal phalanges of 4 fingers Extension of DIP, PIP, and MP joints of 4 fingers; extension of wrist Radial Ulnar
Extensor digiti minimi (proprius) Common extensor tendon Base of proximal phalanx of little finger Extension of 5th MP joint and wrist Radial Ulnar
Extensor indicis Dorsal aspect of distal ulna and interosseous membrane Base of proximal phalanx of index finger Extension and radial deviation of 2nd MP joint, extension of wrist Radial Ulnar
Wrist and hand, intrinsic hand
Abductor digiti minimi Pisiform bone Base of proximal phalanx of little finger Abduction and flexion of 5th MP joint Ulnar Ulnar
Flexor digiti minimi brevis Hamate bone Base of proximal phalanx of little finger Flexion of 5th MP joint Ulnar Ulnar
Opponens digiti minimi Hamate bone Medial surface of 5th metacarpal Flexion and adduction of little finger Ulnar Ulnar
Dorsal interossei (4) Adjacent sides of all 4 metacarpals Bases of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th proximal phalanges and extensor digitorum communis tendon Abduction of 2nd and 4th MP joints Ulnar Metacarpal branches of radial
Palmar interossei (3) Ulnar side of 2nd metacarpal and radial side of 4th and 5th metacarpals Radial side of 4th and 5th phalanges and ulnar side of 2nd proximal phalanx Adduction and flexion of 2nd, 4th, and 5th MP joints Ulnar Metacarpal branches of deep volar arch
Lumbricales Flexor digitorum profundus tendons Extensor digitorum communis tendons Flexion of 4 MP joints, extension of 4 PIP and DIP joints Median and ulnar Volar metacarpal branch of deep volar
Thumb, extrinsic
Extensor pollicis longus Middle 1/3 of ulna and interosseous membrane Base of distal phalanx of thumb Extension of IP and MP joints of thumb, extension and radial deviation of wrist Radial Ulnar through the dorsal interosseous
Extensor pollicis brevis Middle dorsal aspect of radius and interosseous membrane Base of proximal phalanx of thumb Extension of MP joint of thumb, abduction of 1st metacarpal, radial deviation of wrist Radial Ulnar through the dorsal interosseous
Abductor pollicis longus Middle dorsolateral aspect of ulna and interosseous membrane Base of 1st metacarpal Abduction of 1st metacarpal, flexion of wrist Radial Dorsal interosseous branch of ulnar
Flexor pollicis longus Middle 1/2 of volar surface of radius Base of distal phalanx of thumb Flexion of IP and MP joints, adduction of thumb Median Radial, volar interosseous
Abductor pollicis brevis Trapezius and scaphoid bones Base of proximal phalanx of thumb Abduction of MP joint of thumb Median Radial
Flexor pollicis brevis Trapezium Base of proximal phalanx of thumb Flexion and adduction of MP joint of thumb Median Radial
Opponens pollicis Trapezium Lateral surface of 1st metacarpal Flexion and adduction of MP joint of thumb Median Radial
Adductor pollicis Oblique head: capitate and 2nd and 3rd metacarpal bones; transverse head: 3rd metacarpal Volar surface of base of proximal phalanx of thumb Adduction of MP joint of thumb Median Deep volar arch

GH = glenohumeral; PIP = proximal interphalangeal; MP = metacarpophalangeal; DIP = distal interphalangeal; IP = interphalangeal.