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Neurophysiological Basis of Motor Control-3rd Edition

Neurophysiological Basis of Motor Control-3rd Edition

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$119.00 USD

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    The study of motor control is evolving into a field of natural science comparable in its rigor and exactness to established fields such as classical physics. This advancement necessitates a resource that offers more precise terminology and rigorous logics. Neurophysiological Basis of Motor Control, Third Edition, rises to the challenge by building on its foundation with thoroughly updated information, expanded content, and an organizational overhaul. By emphasizing the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in the processes of generating voluntary movements, the text offers a distinct understanding of how the brain generates control signals and how the body executes them.

    Author Mark Latash, PhD—founding editor of the journal Motor Control and past president of the International Society of Motor Control (ISMC)—combines his expertise with the experience of new coauthor Tarkeshwar Singh, PhD, director of the Sensorimotor Neuroscience and Learning Laboratory at Penn State University. In the third edition of this book, previously titled Neurophysiological Basis of Movement, the authors present the following:
    • New chapters on motor learning and sensorimotor integration
    • Expanded sections dedicated to the role of different sensory modalities in motor control, kinesthetic perception, and action–perception interactions
    • An exploration of the basis of neuroanatomy, aging and development, motor disorders, and basic concepts such as coordination, reflexes, voluntary movement, sensation, and perception
    Supported with hundreds of illustrations and chapter introductions that provide smooth transitions from one topic to the next, the third edition also incorporates thought-provoking problems that encourage students to think critically and become aware of the types of motor control issues that have yet to be studied or solved. At the end of each section, additional problems are offered in short essay and multiple-choice formats as a means of self-testing. Other supplemental learning aids include chapter summaries as well as key terms and topics.

    Neurophysiological Basis of Motor Control, Third Edition, deepens students’ knowledge of the link between the brain and movement with basic facts about neural motor control, neuroanatomy, and movement disorders. The text will help usher in a new era in the study of motor control, promoting independent thinking and sharing thought-provoking ideas on current theories of motor control and coordination.

    Audience

    A text for upper undergraduate and graduate courses on neural control of movement and movement disorders. A reference for specialists in motor behavior, neuroscience, and motor rehabilitation.
    Chapter 1. History, Evolution, and Motor Control
    1.1 Brief History of Movement Studies
    1.2 Evolution of Movements and Nikolai Bernstein’s Theory
    1.3 Motor Control and Laws of Nature

    Part I. Excitable Cells and Their Communication

    Chapter 2. Membranes, Particles, and Equilibrium Potentials
    2.1 The Biological Membrane
    2.2 Movement in a Solution
    2.3 Concentration of Water: Osmosis
    2.4 Movement of Ions: The Nernst Equation

    Chapter 3. Action Potential
    3.1 Creation of a Membrane Potential
    3.2 Basic Features of the Action Potential
    3.3 Mechanisms of Generating an Action Potential

    Chapter 4. Information Conduction and Transmission
    4.1 Conduction of an Action Potential
    4.2 Myelinated Fibers
    4.3 The Structure of a Neuron
    4.4 Information Coding in the Nervous System
    4.5 Synaptic Transmission
    4.6 Neurotransmitters
    4.7 Temporal and Spatial Summation

    Chapter 5. Skeletal Muscle
    5.1 Skeletal Muscle Structure
    5.2 Myofilaments
    5.3 Neuromuscular Synapse
    5.4 Mechanisms of Contraction
    5.5 Types of Muscle Contractions
    5.6 Elements of Mechanics
    5.7 Force–Length and Force–Velocity Relations
    5.8 External Regimes of Muscle Contraction

    Chapter 6. Peripheral Receptors
    6.1 General Classification and Properties of Receptors
    6.2 Muscle Spindles
    6.3 The Gamma-System
    6.4 Golgi Tendon Organs
    6.5 Other Muscle Receptors
    6.6 Articular Receptors
    6.7 Cutaneous Receptors
    6.8 Signals From Peripheral Receptors

    Chapter 7. Motor Units and Electromyography
    7.1 The Motor Unit
    7.2 Fast and Slow Motor Units
    7.3 The Henneman Principle
    7.4 Functional Roles of Different Motor Units
    7.5 Electromyography
    7.6 Processing Electromyographic Signals

    Problems for Part I

    Part II. Neuroanatomical Foundations of Motor Control

    Chapter 8. Cerebral Cortex
    8.1 Structure of the Cerebral Cortex
    8.2 Cells in the Cerebral Cortex
    8.3 Premotor Cortex and Supplementary Motor Area
    8.4 Primary Motor Cortex
    8.5 Efferent Output From the Cortical Motor Areas
    8.6 Afferent Input Into the Cortical Motor Areas
    8.7 Hemispheric Lateralization in the Cortical Motor Areas
    8.8 Preparation for a Voluntary Movement
    8.9 Neuronal Population Vectors
    8.10 Encoding Movement Parameters in the M1
    8.11 Brain–Machine Interfaces

    Chapter 9. Basal Ganglia
    9.1 Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia
    9.2 Inputs and Outputs of the Basal Ganglia
    9.3 Direct and Indirect Pathways Within the Basal Ganglia
    9.4 Dopamine Modulation of Basal Ganglia Circuits
    9.5 Motor Circuits Involving the Basal Ganglia
    9.6 Activity of the Basal Ganglia During Movements
    9.7 Movement Disorders Associated With the Basal Ganglia
    9.8 Other Functions of the Basal Ganglia

    Chapter 10. Cerebellum
    10.1 Overall Structure of the Cerebellum
    10.2 Inputs and Outputs of the Cerebellum
    10.3 Pathways Within the Cerebellum
    10.4 Distinct Cerebellar Regions Control Discrete Motor Functions
    10.5 Cerebellar Control of Movement
    10.6 Consequences of Cerebellar Lesions on Movements
    10.7 Cerebellar Contribution to Motor Learning
    10.8 Cerebellar Interactions With the Basal Ganglia and Cortex

    Chapter 11. Brainstem and Extrapyramidal Tracts
    11.1 Brainstem Anatomy
    11.2 Reticular Formation
    11.3 Superior Colliculus
    11.4 Red Nucleus
    11.5 Vestibular Nuclei
    11.6 Cranial Nerves
    11.7 Descending Tracts

    Problems for Part II

    Part III. Sensory Basis of Motor Control

    Chapter 12. Central Processing of Somatosensory Information
    12.1 First-Order Neurons
    12.2 Second-Order Neurons
    12.3 Third-Order Neurons
    12.4 Proprioceptive System
    12.5 Primary and Secondary Somatosensory Cortex
    12.6 Integration of Somatosensory Input With Other Sensory Modalities
    12.7 Injuries to Somatosensory Pathways

    Chapter 13. Vestibular and Auditory System
    13.1 Transduction in the Vestibular System
    13.2 Vestibular Afferents Respond to Head Motion
    13.3 Central Projections From the Otolith Organs and Semicircular Canals
    13.4 Central Pathways That Stabilize Gaze, Posture, and Head Movements
    13.5 Peripheral Auditory System
    13.6 Central Auditory Projections From the Cochlea
    13.7 Auditory Integration
    13.8 Auditory Thalamus and Cortex
    13.9 Auditory Cortex and Limb Motor Control

    Chapter 14. Visual System
    14.1 Structure of the Eye
    14.2 Structure of the Retina
    14.3 Rods and Cones
    14.4 Optic Nerve, Tracts, and Radiations
    14.5 Striate Cortex
    14.6 Retinotopic Organization of V1
    14.7 Extrastriate Cortex
    14.8 Neurons of the Two Visual Streams
    14.9 Visual Deficits Due to Area-Specific Visual System Damage
    14.10 Ocular Movements

    Problems for Part III

    Part IV. Reflexes and Reflex-Like Movements

    Chapter 15. Reflexes
    15.1 Definition of a Reflex
    15.2 Reflex Arc, Gain, and Latency
    15.3 Reflex Classifications
    15.4 Conditioned Reflexes

    Chapter 16. Excitation and Inhibition Within the Spinal Cord
    16.1 The Spinal Cord
    16.2 Excitation Within the Central Nervous System
    16.3 Postsynaptic Inhibition
    16.4 Recurrent Inhibition and Renshaw Cells
    16.5 Reciprocal Inhibition
    16.6 Presynaptic Inhibition
    16.7 Persistent Inward Currents

    Chapter 17. Monosynaptic Reflexes
    17.1 H-Reflex and M-Response
    17.2 Tendon Tap Reflex (T-Reflex)
    17.3 Effects of Voluntary Muscle Activation on Monosynaptic Reflexes
    17.4 F-Wave

    Chapter 18. Oligosynaptic and Polysynaptic Reflexes
    18.1 Oligosynaptic Reflexes
    18.2 Polysynaptic Reflexes
    18.3 Flexor Reflex
    18.4 Tonic Stretch Reflex
    18.5 Tonic Vibration Reflex
    18.6 Interaction Among Reflex Pathways
    18.7 Inter-Joint and Inter-Limb Reflexes

    Chapter 19. Long-Loop Reflexes and Reflex-Like Reactions
    19.1 Preprogrammed Reactions
    19.2 Preprogrammed Reactions Versus Stretch Reflexes
    19.3 Afferent Sources of Preprogrammed Reactions
    19.4 Preprogrammed Reactions During Movement Perturbations
    19.5 Basic Features of Preprogrammed Reactions
    19.6 Preprogrammed Corrections of Vertical Posture
    19.7 Corrective Stumbling Reactions

    Problems for Part IV

    Part V. Control and Coordination of Goal-Oriented Movements

    Chapter 20. Voluntary Control of a Single Muscle
    20.1 What Is Voluntary Movement?
    20.2 Feedforward and Feedback Control
    20.3 Servo Control
    20.4 Servo Hypothesis
    20.5 α-γ Coactivation
    20.6 Voluntary Activation of Muscles
    20.7 Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis

    Chapter 21. General Issues of Motor Control
    21.1 Force Control
    21.2 Engrams and the Generalized Motor Program
    21.3 Internal Models
    21.4 Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis: Main Ideas
    21.5 Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis: Subtle Details
    21.6 Dynamic Systems Approach

    Chapter 22. Motor Synergies
    22.1 The Problem of Motor Redundancy
    22.2 Optimization Approaches
    22.3 Bernstein’s Level of Synergies
    22.4 Uniting Muscles Into Groups
    22.5 Principle of Abundance
    22.6 Ensuring Stability of Movements
    22.7 Uncontrolled Manifold Hypothesis

    Chapter 23. Patterns of Single-Joint Movements
    23.1 Isotonic Movements and Isometric Contractions
    23.2 Task Parameters and Performance Variables
    23.3 Kinematic Patterns During Single-Joint Isotonic Movements
    23.4 EMG Patterns During Single-Joint Isotonic Movements
    23.5 EMG Patterns During Single-Joint Isometric Contractions
    23.6 Dual-Strategy Hypothesis
    23.7 Single-Joint Movements Within the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis

    Chapter 24. Multijoint Movement
    24.1 Two Issues With Controlling Natural Reaching Movements
    24.2 Interjoint Reflexes
    24.3 Multijoint Coordination by the Spinal Cord
    24.4 Supraspinal Mechanisms
    24.5 Neural Control Variables for Multijoint Movements
    24.6 Equilibrium-Trajectory Hypothesis
    24.7 Hierarchical Control With Spatial Referent Coordinates
    24.8 Multijoint Synergies

    Chapter 25. Postural Control
    25.1 Vertical Posture
    25.2 Postural Sway
    25.3 Role of the Vestibular System
    25.4 Role of Vision
    25.5 Role of Proprioception
    25.6 Anticipatory Postural Adjustments
    25.7 Corrective Postural Reactions
    25.8 Postural Synergies

    Chapter 26. Locomotion
    26.1 Two Approaches to Locomotion
    26.2 Central Pattern Generator
    26.3 Locomotor Centers
    26.4 Spinal Locomotion
    26.5 Spinal Control of Locomotion in Humans
    26.6 Gait Patterns
    26.7 Dynamic Pattern Generation
    26.8 Step Initiation
    26.9 Corrective Stumbling Reaction

    Chapter 27. Prehension
    27.1 Hand Joints and Muscles
    27.2 Cortical Representations of the Hand
    27.3 Indices of Finger Interaction
    27.4 Multifinger Synergies in Pressing Tasks
    27.5 Grasping
    27.6 Prehension Synergies and Principle of Superposition

    Problems for Part V

    Part VI. Sensorimotor Integration for Perception and Action

    Chapter 28. Kinesthetic Perception
    28.1 Sensation and Perception
    28.2 Weber-Fechner Law
    28.3 Ambiguity of Sensory Information
    28.4 Afferent and Efferent Components of Perception
    28.5 Vibration-Induced Kinesthetic Illusions
    28.6 Distorted Efferent Copy and Preconceptions
    28.7 Sense of Effort
    28.8 Stability of Percepts
    28.9 Perception–Action Coupling

    Chapter 29. Multisensory Integration
    29.1 Spatial Multisensory Integration for Limb Motor Control
    29.2 Temporal Multisensory Integration for Limb Motor Control
    29.3 Coordinate Frames for Limb Motor Control
    29.4 Postural Balance and Motion Perception
    29.5 Neural Correlates of Multisensory Integration

    Chapter 30. Visual Perception and Action
    30.1 Two Visual Streams
    30.2 Magnocellular and Parvocellular Ganglion Cells and Streams
    30.3 Motion Processing in the Cortex
    30.4 Color, Object, and Face Recognition in the Ventral Stream
    30.5 Roles of Dual Streams for Reach-to-Grasp Movements
    30.6 Neural Structures Involved in Oculomotor Control
    30.7 Frontoparietal Cortical Areas Involved in Eye–Hand Coordination
    30.8 Eye and Hand Coordination for Movements Starting From Rest
    30.9 Eye and Hand Coordination During Movement
    30.10 Eye and Hand Coordination While Intercepting Moving Targets

    Problems for Part VI

    Part VII. Emerging, Evolving, and Adapting Movements

    Chapter 31. Fatigue
    31.1 Fatigue and Its Contributors
    31.2 Muscular Mechanisms of Fatigue
    31.3 Spinal Mechanisms of Fatigue
    31.4 Supraspinal Mechanisms of Fatigue
    31.5 Adaptive Changes During Fatigue
    31.6 Abnormal Fatigue

    Chapter 32. Effects of Aging
    32.1 General Features of Movements in Elderly Persons
    32.2 Changes in Muscles and Motor Units
    32.3 Muscle Reflexes in Elderly Persons
    32.4 Changes in Sensory Function
    32.5 Muscle Activation Patterns During Fast Movements
    32.6 Changes in Posture and Gait
    32.7 Hand Function in Elderly Persons
    32.8 Changes in Motor Synergies
    32.9 Adaptive Changes in Motor Patterns
    32.10 Effects of Training

    Chapter 33. Typical and Atypical Development
    33.1 Humans at Birth
    33.2 Motor Milestones During Typical Development
    33.3 Exploration and Emergent Motor Patterns
    33.4 Development of Motor Synergies
    33.5 Down Syndrome
    33.6 Effects of Practice in People with Down Syndrome
    33.7 Autism
    33.8 Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Chapter 34. Motor Learning
    34.1 Adaptation, Learning, and Memory
    34.2 Muscle Memory
    34.3 Habituation of Reflexes
    34.4 Conditioned Reflexes
    34.5 Operant Conditioning and Learning Spinal Reflexes
    34.6 Short-Term and Long-Term Memory
    34.7 Adaptation to Unusual Force Fields
    34.8 Motor Skills
    34.9 Learning Motor Synergies
    34.10 Stages in Motor Learning
    34.11 Effects of Practice on Cortical Representations

    Problems for Part VII

    Part VIII. Motor Disorders

    Chapter 35. Peripheral Muscular and Neurological Disorders
    35.1 Myopathies and Neuropathies
    35.2 Muscular Dystrophies
    35.3 Continuous Muscle Fiber Activity Syndromes
    35.4 Myasthenia Gravis
    35.5 Mononeuropathies
    35.6 Multiple Mononeuropathies
    35.7 Polyneuropathies
    35.8 Radiculopathies

    Chapter 36. Spinal Cord Injury and Spasticity
    36.1 Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury
    36.2 Signs and Symptoms of Spasticity
    36.3 Possible Mechanisms of Spasticity
    36.4 Defining Muscle Tone
    36.5 Treatment of Spasticity

    Chapter 37. Disorders Involving the Basal Ganglia
    37.1 Clinical Features of Parkinson's Disease
    37.2 Voluntary Movements in Parkinson's Disease
    37.3 Vertical Posture and Locomotion in Parkinson's Disease
    37.4 Motor Synergies in Parkinson's Disease
    37.5 Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease
    37.6 Huntington’s Chorea
    37.7 Hemiballismus
    37.8 Dystonia
    37.9 Tardive Dyskinesia

    Chapter 38. Cerebellar Disorders
    38.1 Consequences of Cerebellar Injuries in Animals
    38.2 Consequences of Cerebellar Disorders in Humans
    38.3 Abnormalities of Stance and Gait
    38.4 Voluntary Movements in Cerebellar Disorders
    38.5 Cerebellar Tremor
    38.6 Ataxias
    38.7 Changes in Motor Synergies
    38.8 Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome

    Chapter 39. Cortical Disorders
    39.1 Consequences of Lesions of Different Cortical Lobes
    39.2 Stroke
    39.3 Myoclonus
    39.4 Tics
    39.5 Tourette Syndrome
    39.6 Williams Syndrome

    Chapter 40. Systemic Disorders
    40.1 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
    40.2 Multiple Sclerosis
    40.3 Multisystem Atrophy
    40.4 Essential Tremor
    40.5 Cerebral Palsy
    40.6 Wilson’s Disease

    Chapter 41. Motor Rehabilitation
    41.1 Do “Normal Movements” Exist?
    41.2 Changes in CNS Priorities
    41.3 Neural Plasticity
    41.4 Adaptive Changes in Motor Patterns
    41.5 Consequences of Amputation
    41.6 Functional Electrical Stimulation
    41.7 Constraint-Induced and Discomfort-Induced Therapies
    41.8 Brain–Computer Interface
    41.9 Practical Considerations

    Problems for Part VIII
    Mark L. Latash, PhD, is a distinguished professor of kinesiology and the director of the Motor Control Laboratory at Penn State University. His research interests are the control and coordination of human voluntary movements, movement disorders in neurological patients, and effects of rehabilitation.

    Latash has authored five books, edited 10 books, and had more than 400 peer-reviewed articles published. He was the founding editor of the journal Motor Control and is a former president of the International Society of Motor Control (ISMC). He is a fellow of the National Academy of Kinesiology (NAK) and member of the Society for Neuroscience (SfN). He has served as director of the annual Motor Control Summer School series and is a recipient of the ISMC’s Bernstein Prize in motor control and Penn State’s Pauline Schmitt Russell Distinguished Research Career Award.

    Tarkeshwar Singh, PhD, is an assistant professor of kinesiology at Penn State University, where he serves as the director of the Sensorimotor Neuroscience and Learning Laboratory. Singh’s research interests are in the areas of multisensory integration, motor control, eye movements, and movement disorders. He has published over 30 peer-reviewed papers and three book chapters. He is a member of the Society for Neuroscience (SfN), the International Society of Motor Control (ISMC), the Society for the Neural Control of Movement (NCM), and the American Physiological Society (APS).

    All ancillaries are free to adopting instructors through HKPropel.

    Presentation package. Features more than 200 PowerPoint slides of text, artwork, and tables from the book that can be used for class discussion and presentation. The slides in the presentation package can be used directly within PowerPoint or printed to make handouts for students. Instructors can easily add, modify, and rearrange the order of the slides.

    Multiple-choice answers. Instructors receive answers to the multiple-choice problems found in the book.

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