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Sedentary Behavior and Health PDF

Sedentary Behavior and Health PDF

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    From office jobs and long commutes to passive entertainment like television and video games, humans are sitting more than ever. Though lack of exercise has major health consequences, researchers are now examining the additional and widespread health risk of the simple act of sitting for extended periods. With research from leading scientists, Sedentary Behavior and Health: Concepts, Assessments, and Interventions presents evidence on sedentary behavior, its apparent health risks, and suggestions on measuring and altering this behavior.

    The highly respected international author team provides an interdisciplinary review of current research, examining scientific, public health, and broader social questions about the implications of sedentary behavior. These topics include humans’ physiological predispositions, exacerbation of current health conditions like obesity and diabetes, and the design and ergonomics of offices and chairs.

    To examine the many facets of this developing area of study, Sedentary Behavior and Health is divided into five parts:

    • “Sedentary Behavior Concepts and Context” reviews the physiology of sedentary behavior, investigating current habits from the perspectives of evolution, industrial engineering, and design.

    • “Sedentary Behavior and Health” explores the relationship between sedentary behavior and several major chronic diseases, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and low-back pain.

    • “Measuring and Analyzing Sedentary Behavior” explains research methods for understanding and measuring sedentary behavior in order to recognize patterns and design interventions.

    • “Sedentary Behavior and Subpopulations” covers issues, risks, and behaviors in groups such as children, working adults, older adults, and minorities.

    • “Changing Sedentary Behavior” provides methods and recommendations for improvement with environmental, social, community, worksite, and technology-based interventions.

    Included in this groundbreaking text are learning objectives, key concepts, and study questions to focus attention on key issues and reinforce concepts. Reviews of the literature in the field are presented, many with comparisons in table form, to provide the full scope of research. Sidebars throughout the text apply theoretical concepts to real-world scenarios.

    Inactivity is mismatched with many aspects of humans’ genetic makeup. While it is becoming the new norm, the consequences of this behavior are emerging as a public health threat. Sedentary Behavior and Health will serve as a key reference for the rapidly emerging research area of sedentary behavior.

    Table of Contents

    Part I. Sedentary Behavior Concepts and Context

    Chapter 1. Emergence of Research on Sedentary Behavior and Health

    Neville Owen

    Contemporary Sedentary Behavior Research and Concepts

    Sedentary Behavior and Health

    Sedentary Research Agenda

    Sedentary Behavior Research Priorities

    Summary

    Chapter 2. Gravity, Sitting, and Health

    Joan Vernikos

    Gravity and Spaceflight

    Head Down Bed Rest Studies

    Gravity Deprivation Syndrome

    Health Consequences of Prolonged Sitting and Gravity

    Perceiving Gravity

    Gravity Intervention Design and Implementation

    Summary

    Chapter 3. Physiological Effects of Reducing and Breaking Up Sitting Time

    David W. Dunstan, Bethany J. Howard, Audrey Bergouignan, Bronwyn A. Kingwell, and Neville Owen

    Methodological Considerations for Studies of Sedentary Behavior

    Metabolic Effects of Reduced Sitting and the Postprandial State

    Cardio Metabolic Effects Following Exposure to Reduced Sitting

    Cardiometabolic Effects of Repeated-Day Exposure to Reduced Sitting

    Public Health and Clinical Guidelines

    Summary

    Chapter 4. Rethinking the Chair and Sitting

    Galen Cranz

    Problems with Sitting in Chairs

    Chair Designer Response

    Postural Education

    Summary

    Chapter 5. Children and Screen Time

    Jorge A. Banda and Thomas N. Robinson

    Screen Time Exposure

    Mobile Devices and Screen Time Changes

    Influences on Media Use

    Screen Time and Body Weight

    Screen Time and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    Screen Time, Physical Activity, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Screen Time and Dietary Habits

    Experimental Studies of Reducing Screen Time

    Summary

    Part II. Sedentary Behavior and Health

    Chapter 6. Economics of Sedentary Occupations

    Kenneth A. Glover

    Economic Sectors

    Economics of Inactivity

    Worksite Health Promotion

    Regulation and Innovation

    Choice Architecture

    Summary

    Chapter 7. Sedentary Behavior and Obesity

    Michael L. Power

    Role of Fat

    Adipose Tissue and Endocrine Function

    Mismatch Paradigm

    Obesity and Inflammation

    Central Versus Peripheral Obesity

    Sex Differences in Fat Storage and Mobilization

    Vitamin D, Adipose Tissue, and Sedentary Behavior

    Obesity Prevalence

    Summary

    Chapter 8. Sedentary Behavior and Incident Diabetes

    Carl J. Caspersen and G. Darlene Thomas

    Diabetes Statistics

    Key Risk Factors

    Epidemiological Diabetes Research

    Research Limitations

    Six Criteria to Assess a Causal Inference for Sedentary Behavior and Diabetes

    Summary

    Chapter 9. Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Disease

    Edward Archer, Enrique G. Artero, and Steven N. Blair

    Cardiovascular Diseases

    Occupational Physical Activity and CVD

    Physical Activity and CVD

    Summary

    Chapter 10. Sedentary Behavior and Cancer

    Brigid M. Lynch and Christine M. Friedenreich

    Cancer Epidemiology

    Key Risk Factors

    Sedentary Behavior and Cancer Research

    Sedentary Behavior and Cancer Survivorship

    Proposed Biological Mechanisms

    Summary

    Chapter 11. Sedentary Behavior and Low Back Pain

    Marco S. Boscolo and Weimo Zhu

    Low Back Pain and Its Impact

    Spine Anatomy

    Spine Stability

    Known Risk Factors of Low Back Pain

    Relationship Between Low Back Pain and Sedentary Behavior

    Prevention of Low Back Pain

    Summary

    Chapter 12. Sedentary behavior and psychological well-being

    Stuart J.H. Biddle and Stephan Bandelow

    Sedentary Behavior and Depression

    Sedentary Behavior and Cognitive Functioning

    Sedentary Behavior and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Summary

    Part III. Measuring and Analyzing Sedentary Behavior

    Chapter 13. Assessing Sedentary Behavior Using Questionnaires

    Barbara E. Ainsworth, Alberto Flórez Pregonero, and Fabien Rivière

    Key Components of Questionnaires

    Measurement Principles of Questionnaires

    Practical Guidelines

    Summary

    Chapter 14. Assessing Sedentary Behavior Using Motion Sensors

    Kong Y. Chen and Richard P. Troiano

    Key Components of Motion Sensors

    Measurement Principles of Motion Transducers

    Accelerometers

    Practical Guidelines

    Potential of Raw Accelerometer Data

    Summary

    Chapter 15. Assessing Sedentary Behavior Using Physiological Sensors

    David Bassett and Dinesh John

    Key Components of Physiological Sensors

    Measurement Principles of Physiological Sensors

    Practical Guidelines

    Summary

    Chapter 16. Assessing Sedentary Behavior Using New Technology

    Dinesh John and Stephen Intille

    Existing Technology for Measuring Sedentary Behavior

    Sedentary Behavior Measurement Goals

    Improvements and Emerging Technology for Measuring Sedentary Behavior

    Data Collection, Storage, and Open Source Processing

    Summary

    Chapter 17. Critical Measurement and Research Issues in Analyzing Sedentary Behavior

    Weimo Zhu

    Sedentary Behavior Data Characteristics

    Challenges and Solutions in the Analysis of Sedentary Behavior Data

    Summary

    Part IV. Sedentary Behavior and Subpopulations

    Chapter 18. Sedentary Behavior in Children

    Gregory J. Welk and Youngwon Kim

    Measures of Sedentary Behavior in Youth

    Health Effects of Sedentary Behavior in Youth

    Epidemiology of Sedentary Behavior in Youth

    Differences in Sedentary Behavior by Age and Gender

    Social and Cultural Differences in Sedentary Behavior in Youth

    Correlates of Youth Sedentary Behavior

    Patterns of Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    Intervention Approaches for Sedentary Behavior in Youth

    Summary

    Chapter 19. Occupational Sedentary Behavior in Adults

    Wendy J. Brown

    Most Sedentary Occupations

    Characteristics of Sitting at Work

    Health Effects of Occupational Sitting

    Changing Sitting at Work to Improve Health Outcomes

    Summary

    Chapter 20. Sedentary Behavior of Older Adults

    Jorge A. Banda, Sandra J. Winter, and Abby C. King

    Measuring Sedentary Behavior in Older Adults

    Health and Functional Outcomes of Sedentary Behavior

    Putative Drivers of Sedentary Behavior

    Possible Contexts of Sedentary Behavior

    Interventions Aimed at Reducing Sedentary Behavior

    Summary

    Chapter 21. Sedentary Behavior in Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups

    Melicia C. Whitt-Glover and Tyrone G. Ceaser

    Statistics

    Correlates of Sedentary Behavior

    Interventions to Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Racial/Ethnic Minorities

    Summary

    Part V. Changing Sedentary Behavior

    Chapter 22. Psychological and Behavior-Based Interventions

    Kevin Moran and John P. Elder

    Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior

    Social Cognitive Theory

    Health Belief Model

    Transtheoretical Model

    Operant Conditioning, Contingency Management and Positivistic Models

    Socioecological Models

    Summary

    Chapter 23. Environment and Policy Interventions

    Jordan A. Carlson and James F. Sallis

    Comprehensive Multi-Level Approaches

    Evaluating Environment and Policy Interventions

    Integrating Environment and Policy Interventions with Other Approaches

    Practical Guidelines

    Summary

    Chapter 24. Sedentary Behavior and Worksite Interventions

    Nicolaas P. Pronk

    Characteristics of Worksite Interventions

    Applications of Worksite Interventions

    Practical Guidelines

    Summary

    Chapter 25. Community Based Interventions

    Adrian Bauman and Josephine Y. Chau

    Framework for Assessing Sedentary Behavior-Reducing Interventions

    Evaluating Community-Based Interventions

    Practical Guidelines

    Summary

    Chapter 26. Ergonomics of Redesigning Sitting

    John B. Shea

    Characteristics and Impact of Chair Designs and Positional Behaviors

    Applications of Sitting Redesign

    Practical Guidelines

    Summary

    Chapter 27. Emerging Communication Systems to Curb Physical Inactivity

    Dolores Albarracin, Vera Liao, Jessica Yi, and Cheng Zhai

    Determinants of Exposure and Attitude

    Determinants of Attitude and Behavior Change

    Information Systems

    Summary

    About the Editor

    Weimo Zhu, PhD, is currently a tenured full professor in the department of kinesiology and community health at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His major area of research is in kinesmetrics (i.e., measurement and evaluation in kinesiology).

    Dr. Zhu’s primary research interests are the study and application of new measurement theories (e.g., item response theory) and models to the field of kinesiology. His research works have earned him international recognition. He is the editor in chief of the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport and a fellow of the American Academy of Kinesiology, American College of Sports Medicine, and Research Consortium of SHAPE America. He is a member of the Fitnessgram/Activitygram Advisory Committee. He is also a member of the editorial board for various academic journals and serves on the executive committees of several national and international professional organizations. Dr. Zhu was the chair of the Measurement and Evaluation Council of SHAPE America. Currently, Dr. Zhu is examining the application of advanced measurement and statistical techniques to several measurement issues in public health. A practical application of Zhu’s theoretical work has been in the assessment of physical activity and sedentary behavior, and he is exploring a new idea and technologies to solve the problems raised.

    Neville Owen, PhD, is head of the Behavioural Epidemiology Laboratory at the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, a National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) senior principal research fellow, adjunct professor in the School of Public Health at the University of Queensland, honorary professorial fellow in the School of Population and Global Health at the University of Melbourne, and adjunct professor in medicine at Monash University. He was foundation professor of Human Movement Science and inaugural head of the School of Human Movement at Deakin University (1995-99) and director of the Cancer Prevention Research Centre at the University of Queensland (2002-11). His research deals with the prevention and management of diabetes, heart disease, and cancer through identifying health consequences, environmental determinants, and behavior-change strategies for physical inactivity and sedentary behavior.

    Owen has published more than 450 peer-reviewed papers and the book Physical Activity and Behavioral Medicine with James F Sallis. Thomson Reuters (2015) identified him as a highly cited researcher and among the world’s most influential minds in the social sciences. He has been supported by grants from the NHMRC since 1992, including two grants for five-year programs (Physical Activity and Public Health; Sitting Less and Moving More: Population Health Research to Understand and Influence Sedentary Behaviour) and a grant from Centres of Research Excellence (Sitting Time and Chronic Disease Prevention: Measurement, Mechanisms and Interventions).