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Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology

Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology

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    Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology uses a mix of biochemistry, molecular biology, neurophysiology, and muscle physiology to provide a synthesis of current knowledge and research directions in the field. The first text devoted solely to the topic, Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology assists readers in identifying current directions in research and new avenues for exploration.

    Recognizing the rapid changes occurring in the field of neuromuscular exercise physiology, the text provides readers with a foundation of knowledge while detailing the most recent findings. Though the text is written at an advanced level, the author succeeds at making the content accessible. Analyses of research findings and research applications are highlighted in special sidebars. Detailed illustrations and graphs assist readers in understanding research findings. Chapter summaries also help readers determine the key issues presented for each topic.

    The author draws attention to a variety of important topics in the field, beginning with a discussion of motor unit types, muscle blood flow, and metabolic pathways in control of metabolism, including a special discussion of the effects of type 2 diabetes. Next, the topic of fatigue is discussed. The author explains possible peripheral and central contributors to fatigue. Chapters 6 and 7 focus on whole-body endurance training, including the effects of aerobic endurance training on the protein profiles of muscle fibers and on the central nervous system. Of particular interest is the applicability of research information to the exercise rehabilitation of individuals with compromised nervous system function, such as spinal cord injury, other trauma, and neuromuscular diseases. The final chapters are devoted to resistance training, including the phenotypic responses of muscles to isometric, slow isotonic, lengthening, and plyometric training. An overview of the effects of resistance training on the nervous system is offered along with clinical applications.

    Within the dynamic field of neuromuscular exercise physiology, ideas of how nerves and muscles collaborate during acute and chronic exercise are continually evolving. Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology offers an authoritative perspective of current research in the field as it seeks to encourage discussion, further study, and new research directions.

    Human Kinetics’ Advanced Exercise Physiology Series offers books for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as professionals in exercise science and kinesiology. These books highlight the complex interaction of the various systems both at rest and during exercise. Each text in this series offers a concise explanation of the system and details how each is affected by acute exercise and chronic exercise training. Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology is the third volume in the series.


    A reference for exercise physiologists and physiotherapists. A text for graduate-level exercise physiology and physiotherapy courses.

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1. Muscle Fibers, Motor Units, and Motoneurons
    Muscle Heterogeneity
    Orderly Motor Unit Recruitment
    Smaller Motoneurons Are More Excitable
    Membrane Resistivity and Motoneuron Size
    Other Factors Determining Action Potential Generation
    Minimal Firing Rates and Afterhyperpolarization Durations
    Motoneuron Current–Frequency Relationship and Excitability
    Late Adaptation
    Motoneuron PICs

    Chapter 2. Motor Unit Recruitment During Different Types of Movements
    Measuring Human Motor Unit Recruitment
    Influence of Task
    Slow-Ramp Isometric Contractions
    Maintained Isometric Contractions
    Isometric Contractions in Various Directions
    Isometric Contractions Versus Movements
    Lengthening Contractions
    Cocontraction of Agonists and Antagonists
    Unilateral Versus Bilateral Contractions
    Rhythmic Complex Contractions

    Chapter 3. Muscle Blood Flow and Metabolism
    Muscle Blood Flow
    Muscle Metabolism

    Chapter 4. Peripheral Factors in Neuromuscular Fatigue
    Intramuscular Factors and Muscle Force
    Involvement of Structures Other Than Muscle
    Research From Animal Experiments

    Chapter 5. Central Factors in Neuromuscular Fatigue
    Motoneuron Activity During Sustained Contractions
    Isometric Versus Anisometric Tasks
    Rotation of Motor Units?

    Chapter 6. Muscular Mechanisms in Aerobic Endurance Training
    Chronic Muscle Stimulation
    Coordination of Muscle Protein Systems
    Pretranslational Control
    Translational Control
    Posttranslational Modifications
    Simultaneous Expression of Isoforms
    Adaptations Can Occur Ex Vivo
    Adaptations Appear in a Specific Sequence
    Thresholds of Activity for Adaptation
    Chronic Stimulation and Atrophy
    Metabolic Signals and the Adaptive Response
    Degenerative and Regenerative Processes

    Chapter 7. Neural Mechanisms in Aerobic Endurance Training
    Adaptation of the Neuromuscular Junction
    Adaptations to Endurance Training
    Responses of Motoneurons
    Adaptations of Spinal Cord Circuits

    Chapter 8. Muscle Molecular Mechanisms in Strength Training
    Acute Responses in Protein Synthesis and Degradation
    Connective Tissue Responses
    Role of Muscle Damage
    Role of Dietary Supplements

    Chapter 9. Muscle Property Changes in Strength Training
    Increased Muscle Fiber Cross-Sectional Area
    Fiber Type Composition
    Muscle Fiber Number
    Muscle Composition
    Muscle Architecture
    Muscle Fiber Ultrastructure
    Evoked Isometric Contractile Properties
    Changes in Muscle Force, Velocity, and Power
    Fatigue Resistance
    Role of Eccentric Contractions

    Chapter 10. Neural Mechanisms in Strength Training
    Gains in Strength Versus Muscle Girth
    Strength Gains Show Task Specificity
    Surface EMG Response During MVC
    Imaginary Strength Training
    Reflex Adaptations
    Cross Education
    Decreased Activation of Antagonists
    Changes in Motor Unit Recruitment
    Changes in Motor Cortex

    About the Author

    Phillip F. Gardiner, PhD, is a professor and director of the Health, Leisure & Human Performance Research Institute at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg. He holds professorial positions in kinesiology and physiology and is a member of the Spinal Cord Research Center. Author of the Human Kinetics books Neuromuscular Aspects of Physical Activity (2001) and Skeletal Muscle Form and Function (coauthor, 2006), Dr. Gardiner has also published over 100 research articles on neuromuscular system adaptability.

    In 2007, Dr. Gardiner received the highest award bestowed by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, the CSEP Honour Award. He was also awarded a Tier I Canada Research Chair at the University of Manitoba in 2002, which was subsequently renewed for an additional 7 years following peer review in 2009.

    Dr. Gardiner served as the president of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology and as coeditor in chief of the Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. He is currently chair of the Advisory Board for the Institute of Musculoskeletal Health and Arthritis, part of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

    Dr. Gardiner resides in Winnipeg, Manitoba, with his wife, Kalan, where he enjoys fly-fishing, brewing his own beer, playing piano, and wrestling with his two Labrador retrievers.


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