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Exercise Biochemistry-2nd Edition

Exercise Biochemistry-2nd Edition

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$129.00 USD

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    Book

    Exercise Biochemistry, Second Edition, takes a potentially difficult and technical subject and translates it into a clear explanation of how exercise affects molecular-level functioning in athletes and nonathletes, both healthy and diseased. Extremely student friendly, this text is written in conversational style by Vassilis Mougios, who poses and then answers questions as if having a dialogue with a student. Using simple language supported by ample analogies and numerous illustrations, he is able to drive home important concepts for students without compromising scientific accuracy and content.

    With significantly updated research, the second edition of Exercise Biochemistry offers a complete compilation, from basic topics to more advanced topics. It includes coverage of metabolism, endocrinology, and assessment all in one volume. This edition also adds the following:

    • A chapter on vitamins and minerals present in the human diet

    • An evidence-based chapter on exercise and disease that shows how appropriate exercise prescriptions can mobilize biochemical mechanisms in the body to fight obesity, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, cancer, osteoporosis, mental disease, and aging

    • Updated information on nucleic acids and gene expression, including exercise genetics, RNA interference, and epigenetics

    • An examination of caffeine as an ergogenic aid to better demonstrate the relationship between caffeine and fatigue

    • Up-to-date findings on how different types of exercise affect lipid metabolism and the use of individual fatty acids during exercise

    To facilitate student learning, Exercise Biochemistry incorporates chapter objectives and summaries, key terms, sidebars, and questions and problems posed at the end of each chapter. It leads students through four successive parts. Part I introduces biochemistry basics, including metabolism, proteins, nucleic acids and gene expression, carbohydrates and lipids, and vitamins and minerals. Part II applies the basics to explore neural control of movement and muscle activity. The essence of the book is found in part III, which details exercise metabolism related to carbohydrates, lipids, and protein; compounds of high phosphoryl-transfer potential; effects of exercise on gene expression; integration of exercise metabolism; and the use of exercise to fight disease. Part IV focuses on biochemical assessment of people who exercise, with chapters on iron status, metabolites, enzymes, and hormones. Simple biochemical assessments of health and performance are also discussed.

    Exercise Biochemistry, Second Edition, is an authoritative resource that will arm future sport and exercise scientists with a clear understanding of the effects of exercise on the function of the human body.

    Audience

    Text for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses in exercise biochemistry or a supplemental text to exercise physiology courses. Also a reference for exercise physiologists, exercise biochemists, sport nutritionists, and health scientists and biologists with an interest in exercise.

    Table of Contents

    Part I. Biochemistry Basics

    Chapter 1. Introduction

    1.1 Chemical Elements

    1.2 Chemical Bonds

    1.3 Molecules

    1.4 Ions

    1.5 Radicals

    1.6 Polarity Influences Miscibility

    1.7 Solutions

    1.8 Chemical Reactions

    1.9 Chemical Equilibrium

    1.10 pH

    1.11 Acid-Base Interconversions

    1.12 Buffer Systems

    1.13 Classes of Biological Substances

    1.14 Classes of Nutrients

    1.15 Cell Structure

    Chapter 2. Metabolism

    2.1 Free-Energy Changes of Metabolic Reactions

    2.2 Determinants of Free-Energy Change

    2.3 ATP, the Energy Currency of Cells

    2.4 Phases of Metabolism

    2.5 Redox Reactions

    2.6 Overview of Catabolism

    Chapter 3. Proteins

    3.1 Amino Acids

    3.2 The Peptide Bond

    3.3 Primary Structure of Proteins

    3.4 Secondary Structure

    3.5 Tertiary Structure

    3.6 Denaturation

    3.7 Quaternary Structure

    3.8 Protein Function

    3.9 Oxygen Carriers

    3.10 Myoglobin

    3.11 Hemoglobin Structure

    3.12 The Wondrous Properties of Hemoglobin

    3.13 Enzymes

    3.14 The Active Site

    3.15 How Enzymes Speed up Metabolic Reactions

    3.16 Factors Affecting the Rate of Enzyme Reactions

    Chapter 4. Nucleic Acids and Gene Expression

    4.1 Introducing Nucleic Acids

    4.2 Flow of Genetic Information

    4.3 Deoxyribonucleotides, the Building Blocks of DNA

    4.4 Primary Structure of DNA

    4.5 The Double Helix of DNA

    4.6 The Genome of Living Organisms

    4.7 DNA Replication

    4.8 Mutations

    4.9 RNA

    4.10 Transcription

    4.11 Delimiting Transcription

    4.12 Genes and Gene Expression

    4.13 Messenger RNA

    4.14 Translation

    4.15 The Genetic Code

    4.16 Transfer RNA

    4.17 Translation Continued

    4.18 In the Beginning, RNA?

    Chapter 5. Carbohydrates and Lipids

    5.1 Carbohydrates

    5.2 Monosaccharides

    5.3 Oligosaccharides

    5.4 Polysaccharides

    5.5 Carbohydrate Categories in Nutrition

    5.6 Lipids

    5.7 Fatty Acids

    5.8 Triacylglycerols

    5.9 Phospholipids

    5.10 Steroids

    5.11 Cell Membranes

    Chapter 6. Vitamins and Minerals

    6.1 Water Soluble Vitamins

    6.2 Fat Soluble Vitamins

    6.3 Metal Minerals

    6.4 Nonmetal Minerals

    6.5 Elements in the Human Body

    Part II. Biochemistry of the Neural and Muscular Processes of Movement

    Chapter 7. Neural Control of Movement

    7.1 Two Ways of Transmission of Nerve Signals

    7.2 The Resting Potential

    7.3 The Action Potential

    7.4 Propagation of an Action Potential

    7.5 Transmission of a Nerve Impulse from One Neuron to Another

    7.6 Birth of a Nerve Impulse

    7.7 The Neuromuscular Junction

    7.8 Changes in Motor Neuron Activity During Exercise

    7.9 A Lethal Arsenal at the Service of Research

    Chapter 8. Muscle Activity

    8.1 Structure of a Muscle Cell

    8.2 The Sliding-Filament Theory

    8.3 The Wondrous Properties of Myosin

    8.4 Myosin Structure

    8.5 Actin

    8.6 Sarcomere Architecture

    8.7 Mechanism of Force Generation

    8.8 Myosin Isoforms and Muscle Fiber Types

    8.9 Control of Muscle Contraction by Ca2+

    8.10 Excitation-Contraction Coupling

    Part III. Exercise Metabolism

    III.1 Principles of Exercise Metabolism

    III.2 Exercise Parameters

    III.3 Experimental Models Used to Study Exercise Metabolism

    III.4 Five Means of Metabolic Control in Exercise

    III.5 Four Classes of Energy Sources in Exercise

    Chapter 9. Compounds of High Phosphoryl Transfer Potential

    9.1 The ATP-ADP Cycle

    9.2 The ATP-ADP Cycle in Exercise

    9.3 Phosphocreatine

    9.4 Watching Exercise Metabolism

    9.5 Loss of AMP by Deamination

    9.6 Purine Degradation

    Chapter 10. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Exercise

    10.1 Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption

    10.2 Glycogen Content of the Human Body

    10.3 Glycogenesis

    10.4 Glycogenolysis

    10.5 Exercise Speeds Up Glycogenolysis in Muscle

    10.6 The Cyclic-AMP Cascade

    10.7 Recapping the Effect of Exercise on Muscle Glycogen Metabolism

    10.8 Glycolysis

    10.9 Exercise Speeds Up Glycolysis in Muscle

    10.10 Pyruvate Oxidation

    10.11 Exercise Speeds Up Pyruvate Oxidation in Muscle

    10.12 The Citric Acid Cycle

    10.13 Exercise Speeds Up the Citric Acid Cycle in Muscle

    10.14 The Electron Transport Chain

    10.15 Oxidative Phosphorylation

    10.16 Energy Yield of the Electron Transport Chain

    10.17 Energy Yield of Carbohydrate Oxidation

    10.18 Exercise Speeds Up Oxidative Phosphorylation in Muscle

    10.19 Lactate Production in Muscle During Exercise

    10.20 Is Lactate Production a Cause of Fatigue?

    10.21 Is Lactate Production Due to a Lack of Oxygen?

    10.22 Features of the Anaerobic Carbohydrate Catabolism

    10.23 Utilizing Lactate

    10.24 Gluconeogenesis

    10.25 A Shortcut in Gluconeogenesis

    10.26 Exercise Speeds Up Gluconeogenesis in the Liver

    10.27 The Cori Cycle

    10.28 Exercise Speeds Up Glycogenolysis in the Liver

    10.29 Control of the Plasma Glucose Concentration in Exercise

    10.30 Blood Lactate Accumulation

    10.31 Blood Lactate Decline

    10.32 “Thresholds”

    Chapter 11. Lipid Metabolism in Exercise

    11.1 Triacylglycerol Digestion, Absorption, and Distribution

    11.2 Digestion, Absorption, and Distribution of Other Lipids

    11.3 Fat Content of the Human Body

    11.4 Triacylglycerol Synthesis in Adipose Tissue

    11.5 Lipolysis

    11.6 Exercise Speeds Up Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue

    11.7 Exercise Speeds Up Lipolysis in Muscle

    11.8 Fate of the Lipolytic Products During Exercise

    11.9 Fatty Acid Degradation

    11.10 Energy Yield of Fatty Acid Oxidation

    11.11 Degradation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    11.12 Degradation of Odd-Number Fatty Acids

    11.13 Fatty Acid Synthesis

    11.14 Synthesis of Fatty Acids Other Than Palmitate

    11.15 Exercise Speeds Up Fatty Acid Oxidation in Muscle

    11.16 Changes in the Plasma Fatty Acid Concentration and Profile During Exercise

    11.17 Interconversion of Lipids and Carbohydrates

    11.18 Brown Adipose Tissue

    11.19 Plasma Lipoproteins

    11.20 A Lipoprotein Odyssey

    11.21 Effects of Exercise on Plasma Triacylglycerols

    11.22 Effects of Exercise on Plasma Cholesterol

    11.23 Exercise Increases Ketone Body Formation

    Chapter 12. Protein Metabolism in Exercise

    12.1 Processing of Dietary Proteins

    12.2 Protein Content of the Human Body

    12.3 Protein Turnover

    12.4 Effects of Exercise on Protein Turnover

    12.5 Amino Acid Degradation

    12.6 Amino Acid Synthesis

    12.7 Effects of Exercise on Amino Acid Metabolism in Muscle

    12.8 Effects of Exercise on Amino Acid Metabolism in the Liver

    12.9 The Urea Cycle

    12.6 Amino Acid Synthesis

    12.10 Plasma Amino Acid, Ammonia, and Urea Concentrations During Exercise

    12.11 Contribution of Proteins to the Energy Expenditure of Exercise

    12.12 Effects of Training on Protein Turnover

    Chapter 13. Effects of Exercise on Gene Expression

    13.1 Stages in the Control of Gene Expression

    13.2 Stages in the Control of Gene Expression Affected by Exercise

    13.3 Kinetics of a Gene Product After Exercise

    13.4 Exercise-Induced Changes That May Modify Gene Expression

    13.5 Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy

    13.6 Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Increase in Muscle-Mitochondrial Content

    13.7 Exercise and Epigenetics

    Chapter 14. Integration of Exercise Metabolism

    14.1 Interconnections of Metabolic Pathways

    14.2 Energy Systems

    14.3 Energy Sources in Exercise

    14.4 Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise

    14.5 Effect of Exercise Intensity on the Choice of Energy Sources

    14.6 Effect of Exercise Duration on the Choice of Energy Sources

    14.7 Interplay of Duration and Intensity: Energy Sources in Running and Swimming

    14.8 Effect of the Exercise Program on the Choice of Energy Sources

    14.9 Sex Differences in the Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise

    14.10 How Sex Influences the Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise

    14.11 Effect of Age on the Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise

    14.12 Effect of Carbohydrate Intake on the Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise

    14.13 Effect of Fat Intake on the Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise

    14.14 Adaptations of the Proportion of Energy Sources During Exercise to Endurance Training

    14.15 How Endurance Training Modifies the Proportion of Energy Sources During Exercise?

    14.16 Adaptations of Energy Metabolism to Resistance and Sprint Training

    14.17 Adaptations of Exercise Metabolism to Interval Training

    14.18 Effect of the Genome on the Choice of Energy Sources in Exercise

    14.19 Muscle Fiber Type Transitions

    14.20 Effects of Environmental Factors on the Choice of Energy Sources in Exercise

    14.21 The Proportion of Fuels Can Be Measured Bloodlessly

    14.22 Hormonal Effects on Exercise Metabolism

    14.23 Redox State and Exercise Metabolism

    14.24 Causes of Fatigue

    14.25 Recovery of the Energy State After Exercise

    14.26 Metabolic Changes in Detraining

    Chapter 15. Exercise to Fight Disease

    15.1 Health, Disease, and Exercise

    15.2 Exercise to Fight Cardiovascular Disease

    15.3 Adaptations of the Heart to Training

    15.4 Adaptations of the Vasculature to Training

    15.5 Exercise to Fight Cancer

    15.6 Diabetes, a Major Metabolic Upset

    15.7 Exercise to Fight Diabetes

    15.8 Obesity, a Health-Threatening Condition

    15.9 Why Obesity Is Harmful

    15.10 Exercise to Fight Obesity

    15.11 Exercise to Fight Osteoporosis

    15.12 Exercise to Fight Mental Dysfunction

    15.13 The Detriments of Physical Inactivity

    15.14 Exercise for Healthy Aging and Longevity

    15.15 Benefits From Regular Exercise in Other Diseases

    15.16 A Final Word on the Value of Exercise

    Part IV. Biochemical Assessment of Exercising Persons

    IV.1 The Blood

    IV.2 Aims and Scope of the Biochemical Assessment

    IV.3 The Reference Interval

    IV.4 Classes of Biochemical Parameters

    Chapter 16. Iron Status

    16.1 Hemoglobin

    16.2 Hematologic Parameters

    16.3 Does Sports Anemia Exist?

    16.4 Iron

    16.5 Total Iron-Binding Capacity

    16.6 Transferrin Saturation

    16.7 Soluble Transferrin Receptor

    16.8 Ferritin

    16.9 Iron Deficiency

    Chapter 17. Metabolites

    17.1 Lactate

    17.2 Estimating the Anaerobic Lactic Capacity

    17.3 Programming Training

    17.4 Estimating Aerobic Endurance

    17.5 Glucose

    17.6 Triacylglycerols

    17.7 Cholesterol

    17.8 Recapping the Lipidemic Profile

    17.9 Glycerol

    17.10 Urea

    17.11 Ammonia

    17.12 Creatinine

    17.13 Uric acid

    17.14 Glutathione

    Chapter 18. Enzymes and Hormones

    18.1 Enzymes

    18.2 Creatine Kinase

    18.3 Glutamyltransferase

    18.4 Antioxidant Enzymes

    18.5 Steroid Hormones

    18.6 Cortisol

    18.7 Testosterone

    18.8 Overtraining Syndrome

    18.9 Epilogue

    Part IV Summary

    About the Author

    Vassilis Mougios, PhD, is a professor of exercise biochemistry and director of the Laboratory of Evaluation of Human Biological Performance at the University of Thessaloniki in Greece. A teacher of exercise biochemistry, sport nutrition, and ergogenic aspects of sport for 30 years, Mougios served on the Scientific Committee of the 2004 Pre-Olympic Congress. He has coauthored many articles in international scientific journals and has done research on muscle contraction, exercise metabolism, biochemical assessment of athletes, and sport nutrition.

    Mougios is a member of the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Physiological Society. He is a fellow and member of the reviewing panel of the European College of Sport Science. He serves as a topic editor for Frontiers in Physiology and a reviewer for Journal of Applied Physiology, British Journal of Sports Medicine, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Acta Physiologica, Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, Metabolism, and Obesity. In his leisure time, he enjoys rafting, hiking, and photography.

    Ancillaries

    All ancillaries are free to course adopters and available online.

    Image bank. Includes more than 300 figures, tables, and chemical equations from the text, sorted by chapter. These can be used in developing a customized presentation based on specific course requirements.

    The image bank is also available for purchase • ISBN 978-1-4925-8738-5