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Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults epub

Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults epub

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    Go beyond aging theories and examine the physiological and physical impacts of aging. Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults takes a close look at the physical implications of the aging process and how health, physical activity, and exercise interact in aging adults.

    With an international team of contributors composed of leading experts from across the field of gerontology, Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults delivers comprehensive, interdisciplinary coverage of the physical aging process and its effects on movement and exercise. Research on the physiological and physical implications of aging is presented, focusing on study outcomes and their practical application in optimizing healthy aging.

    Presented in an integrated and cohesive manner, this text is organized into four parts.
    • Part I covers the theoretical foundations of biological aging, the implications of aging theories on medical research, and the social and economic impacts of demographic shifts due to population aging and global population size.
    • Part II addresses age-related changes to the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and endocrine systems.
    • Part III covers the physical effects of aging on other dimensions of life, including balance, motor control, and physical functions.
    • Part IV focuses on exercise and older adults, taking an in-depth look at exercise measurements and the main barriers to regular exercise. One full chapter is devoted to recommendations for optimizing health for the general public, while another chapter is focused on performance by elite older athletes who exercise beyond functional fitness.
    Chapter objectives, end-of-chapter summaries, and review questions highlight key concepts and promote learning retention. Behavior Check sidebars look at the impacts of aging on behavior, how behavior affects physical health and activity, and how changes in behavior can improve everyday living. Functional Fitness Check Up sidebars focus on the performance of daily movements that are vital for older adults who want to maintain their physical independence. Putting It Into Practice elements provide examples of real-life application of the concepts presented, facilitating a practical understanding of how to use the content to benefit clients.

    A definitive resource for students and health care professionals who study physical aging, conduct clinical research, or work with older adults as clients and patients, Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults helps readers understand the aging process and its effects on movement, exercise, and other dimensions of life.


    A text for upper-undergraduate and graduate courses in physical activity and aging or gerontology; also a reference for physical activity instructors, fitness specialists, personal trainers, activity directors, activity assistants, and therapeutic recreation specialists working with older adults.

    Table of Contents

    Part I. Foundations of Aging

    Chapter 1.
    Introduction to Aging

    Chapter 2. Aging Theories
    Theodore C. Goldsmith, BS
    Evolutionary Mechanics Theories
    Simple Damage and Fundamental Limitation Theories
    Evolutionary Non-Programmed Aging Theories
    Evolutionary Programmed Aging Theories
    Programmed vs. Non-Programmed Aging Controversy
    Medical Implications of Aging Theories
    Lifespan Extension Research
    Anti-Aging Medicine
    Policy, Ethics, and Social Issues Regarding Aging Theories
    Review Questions

    Chapter 3. Demographics Shift
    Zachary Zimmer, PhD
    History of Population Growth
    Patterns of Population Ageing Today
    Impact of Fertility Decline on Population Ageing
    Impact of Mortality Decline on Population Ageing
    The Compression of Morbidity
    Review Questions

    Part II. Physical Dimensions of Aging

    Chapter 4.
    Body Composition and Age-Related Changes
    Katherine Boisvert-Vigneault, MSc; Isabelle J. Dionne, PhD
    Measures of Changes in Body Composition
    Fat-Free Mass
    Bone Mass
    Fat Mass
    Co-occurrence of Obesity, Sarcopenia, and Osteoporosis
    Review Questions

    Chapter 5. Musculoskeletal Changes
    Martin Sénéchal, PhD, CEP; Brittany Rioux, MSc
    Skeletal Muscle Overview
    Skeletal Muscle Strength and Power Losses with Aging
    Muscle Fibers and Aging
    Muscle Groups, Actions, and Aging
    Demographic Differences and Aging
    Muscle Power and Aging
    Physiological Mechanisms of the Loss of Skeletal Muscle Strength
    Physiological Mechanisms of the Loss of Skeletal Muscle Power
    Resistance Training to Improve Skeletal Muscle, Strength, and Power
    Review Questions

    Chapter 6. Cardiovascular Changes
    Silvia Pogliaghi, MD, PhD; and Juan M. Murias, PhD
    Anatomical Changes of the Heart and Vessels
    Functional Changes of the Cardiovascular System
    Cardiovascular Adaptations to Endurance Exercise Training
    Future Directions
    Review Questions

    Chapter 7. Pulmonary Changes
    Joseph W. Duke and Andrew T. Lovering
    Resting Pulmonary Function With Healthy Aging
    Ventilatory Responses to Exercise With Healthy Aging
    Pulmonary Circulation, Blood Flow, and Gas Exchange
    Review Questions

    Chapter 8. Endocrine System Changes
    Anthony C. Hackney, PhD, DSc
    Endocrine System Changes With Aging
    Physical Activity, Life-Style, and Endocrine System Function With Aging
    Acute Exercise-Induced Hormone Responses in Aged Adults
    Further Research Needs
    Review Questions

    Part III. Physical Implications of Aging

    Chapter 9.
    Balance, Locomotion, and Falls
    Debra J. Rose, PhD, FNAK
    Age-Related Changes in the Systems Contributing to Balance and Flexibility
    Age-Associated Changes in Gait
    Evaluating the Multiple Dimensions of Balance
    Measuring Balance in Laboratory Settings
    Measuring Balance in Clinical or Field Settings
    Measuring Gait
    Measuring Balance and Falls Self-Efficacy
    Falling as a Result of Balance Failing
    Designing Exercise Programs Aimed at Lowering Fall Incidence Rates
    Review Questions

    Chapter 10. Motor Control
    Eduardo Martinez-Valdes, PT, MSc, PhD; and Alessandro M. De Nunzio, B. Eng., MSc, PhD
    Motor Learning
    Neural Plasticity
    Decline in Motor Skills Induced by Aging
    The Role of Exercise in Improving Motor Function
    Future Research
    Review Questions

    Chapter 11. Physical Functions
    Danielle R. Bouchard, PhD; and Andrea Mayo, MSc
    Defining Physical Function and Frailty
    Explaining Physical Function Decline With Age
    Measuring Physical Function
    Measuring Frailty
    Consequences of Low Physical Functions
    Review Questions

    Part IV. Exercise: A Powerful Prevention Tool

    Chapter 12.
    Measurements of Exercise Specific to Older Adults
    Kelliann K. Davis, PhD, FACSM, CCEP; and Daniel E. Forman, MD, FAHA, FACC
    Clinical Perspectives
    Pre-exercise Screening and Considerations
    Medication Considerations
    Predictable Clinical Complexities Impacting Assessments
    Exercise Testing
    Balance and Gait Assessments
    Review Questions

    Chapter 13. Barriers and Solutions to Exercise Adherence
    Mariana Wingood, PT, DPT; and Nancy Gell, PT, PhD, MPH
    Socioecological Framework
    Physical Activity Recommendations for Older Adults
    Physical Activity Adherence Factors
    Screening and Assessment Tools for Barriers and Facilitators
    Interventions to Promote of Physical Activity
    Special Populations
    Review Questions

    Chapter 14. Physical Activity and Exercise Recommendations for Functional Health
    Gregory W. Heath, DHSc; and Danielle R. Bouchard, PhD
    Physical Activity Recommendations for the General Population
    Choice of Physical Activity and Exercise for Older Adults
    Sedentary Behavior and Physical Function
    Improvement of Functional Health With Chronic Conditions
    Physical Activity and Exercise Targeting Physical Functions
    Review Questions

    Chapter 15. Exercise Recommendations for Elite Older Adults
    Nattai Borges, PhD; and Luke Del Vecchio, PhD
    Masters Athletes
    Physical Performance Benefits of Long Term Systematic Training
    Training Considerations for Masters Athletes
    Endurance Performance and Age
    Sprint Performance and Age
    Strength and Power Performance and Age
    Holistic Health Benefits of the Masters Athlete Lifestyle
    Nutritional Considerations for Masters Athletes
    Potential Negative Impacts of High-Level Training in Masters Athlete
    Review Questions


    Danielle R. Bouchard, PhD, is an associate professor of kinesiology at the University of New Brunswick, and she is a codirector at the Cardiometabolic Exercise and Lifestyle Laboratory. She started her academic career at the Université de Moncton by studying physical education with a minor in biology. She went on to earn a master’s degree in exercise sciences from the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières. She was introduced to the field of physical activity for older adults when she completed her doctorate at the Université de Sherbrooke. Since then, she has been involved at different levels in encouraging older adults to become or stay active. The main focus of her research relates to clinical exercise physiology to test novel approaches to encourage inactive individuals—especially those with chronic conditions—to improve their physical capacities.

    Bouchard is on the editorial board of the Journal of Aging and Physical Activity and has written numerous articles on the topic in key journals in addition to a contribution in the Handbook of Clinical Nutrition and Aging.


    All ancillaries are free to course adopters and available online.

    Test package. Contains a bank of questions in true-false, fill-in-the-blank, essay and short-answer, and multiple-choice formats.

    Image bank. Includes most of the figures, photos, and tables from the text, sorted by chapter. These can be used in developing a customized presentation based on specific course requirements.

    The image bank is also available for purchase • ISBN 978-1-4925-9220-4