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Essentials of Electromyography PDF

$57.00 USD

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ISBN: 9781492573593

©2010

Page Count: 280

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The interest in and use of electromyography (EMG) have grown significantly in recent years. Researchers have found numerous clinical and research uses for EMG, including biofeedback, gait analysis, and clinical diagnosis for neuromuscular disorders. Yet, until now, few sources have been available to help novices understand the characteristics of the instrumentation, signal analysis techniques, and appropriate EMG applications.

 

Essentials of Electromyographyprovides the perfect starting point for those who plan to use EMG because it aids in the comprehension of issues such as handling noise contamination to the area, slope, and variability of the EMG signal. The text is also a solid reference for practitioners who use EMG, including exercise scientists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, and motor development specialists.

 

The book contains six detailed chapters discussing the anatomy and physiology of muscle, bioelectricity, EMG tools, signal processing, force–fatigue relations, and gait. Through Essentials of Electromyography, readers will

• learn both fundamental and advanced concepts regarding the principles of using EMG, including the use and abuse of electrical recordings of muscle potentials;

• discover the physiological basis of EMG signals, which is explained at an introductory level; and

• explore relevant topics such as electrode configuration, advanced signal processing theory, and locations for extracting EMG information.

 

The text provides a solid review of the relationship between human anatomy and EMG as well as how EMG is applied to clinical areas. It showcases over 160 figures and many qualitative explanations to communicate the principles of EMG, the biophysical basis of EMG, and the appropriate applications of EMG. It also contains appendixes for readers with a deeper understanding of EMG and stronger backgrounds in math; those readers will have the opportunity to work through more detailed EMG calculations. The book is heavily referenced and illustrated with diagrams showing electrical circuits and the progression of electrical impulses.

 

Essentials of Electromyography—which is also available as an e-book—will help readers learn how to apply EMG for biofeedback, back pain, sport activities, and other uses. The text pulls together information scattered in books and articles among the numerous disciplines that use EMG as a tool. With its clear presentation of the concepts and applications of EMG, Essentials of Electromyography will prove to be a valuable text for practitioners and students alike.

 

Preface

Acknowledgments

Acronyms and Symbols

 

Chapter 1. Anatomy and Physiology of Muscle Bioelectric Signals

Anatomical Features of Muscle

Physiology of the Muscle Fiber

            Resting Membrane Potentials

            Generation of the Muscle Fiber Action Potential

            Muscle Fiber Conduction Velocity

Motor Unit Features

            Fiber Organization

            Motor Unit Action Potential

Techniques for Modulating Muscular Force

Other Physiological Influences on the Electromyogram

For Further Reading

 

Chapter 2. Bioelectricity

Forces in Electricity

            Electric Charge

            Electric Fields

            Electric Potential Energy

            Volume-Conducted Potentials

                        The Far Observation Line

                        The Near Observation Line

                        Tripole Representation of the Muscle Fiber Action Potential

Essentials of Electric Circuits

            Capacitance

            Electric Current

            Resistance

            Electrical Energy

            Resistors and Capacitors in a Circuit

                        Charging a Capacitor Through a Resistor

                        Discharging a Capacitor Through a Resistor

                        The Muscle Fiber as a Resistor-Capacitor Circuit

Essentials of Alternating Current

            Conventions of an Alternating Signal

            Effective Voltage and Current

            Capacitance in an AC Circuit

            Impedance

            Cutoff Frequency for an Alternating Current Circuit

For Further Reading

 

Chapter 3. EMG Instrumentation

Electrodes

            The Electrode-Electrolyte Interface

            Half-Cell Potential

            Electrode Types

                        Surface Electrodes

                        Indwelling Electrodes

                                    Needle Electrodes

                                    Wire Electrodes

            Tissue Filtering

Electrode Configuration

            Monopolar Recordings

            Bipolar Recordings

                        Interelectrode Distance

                        Selectivity

            Considerations for Electrode Placement

Amplifier Characteristics

            Differential Gain

            Input Impedance

                        Bias Current

                        Amplifier Noise

                        Cabling

            Frequency Response

                        Bode Plots

                        Decibels

                        Filters

                                    High-Pass Filter

                                    Low-Pass Filter

                                    Band-Pass Filter

                        Practical Applications

                        Electrode Arrays

Grounding

            Safety Grounding

            Signal Grounding

Computer Interfacing

            Sampling

            Horizontal Resolution

            Multiplexing

            Quantization

            Vertical Resolution

For Further Reading

 

Chapter 4. EMG Signal Processing

Amplitude

            Nature of the EMG signal

            Linear Envelope Detection

                        Radio Signal Demodulation

                        Moving Average

                        EMG Signal Demodulation

            Linear Envelope EMG Measurement

                        Area

                        Slope

                        Onset

                        Shape

            Band-Passed EMG Measurement

Cross-Correlation Function

            Background of the Correlation

            Calculation of Cross-Correlation Function

            Muscle Fiber Conduction Velocity

            Electromechanical Delay

            Cross-Talk

Frequency

            Fourier Series

            Frequency Spectrum

            Power Spectrum

            Fourier Transform

            Frequency Spectrum of EMG

            Power Spectral Density of EMG

            Discrete Measures Obtained From the Power Spectral Density Function

Data Window Length

Noise Contamination

            Signal-to-Noise Ratio

            Inherent Noise

                        Electrode Noise

                        Amplifier Noise Sources

            Interference Noise

            Signal Averaging

            Baseline Noise Spectrum Subtraction

            ECG Contamination

Basic Concepts of Digital Filtering

            Residuals Analysis

            Digital Filtering

For Further Reading

 

Chapter 5. EMG–Force and EMG–Fatigue Relationships

Relationships Between Muscular Force and EMG

            EMG Magnitude and Muscular Force

                        Studies Using Isometric Contractions

                        Studies Using Nonisometric Contractions

                        Studies Focusing on Other Factors

            Frequency Analyses

EMG Analysis During Fatiguing Contractions

            EMG Amplitude During Fatigue

            Spectral Frequency Characteristics

Advanced EMG Issues During Fatiguing Contractions

            M-Waves During Fatigue

            The Importance of Muscle Length

            Shifts In Spectral Frequency During Fatigue

            Other EMG–Fatigue Reporting Techniques

            Reliability of EMG Measures During Fatiguing Contractions

            Other Issues and Recommendations

For Further Reading

 

Chapter 6. Other EMG Applications

EMG and Gait

            Indwelling or Surface Electrodes?

            Normalization

            Appropriate Quantitative Measures

            EMG Onset–Offset Analysis

            Visual Presentation of EMG Data During Gait

            Other Gait EMG Issues

            Reliability of the EMG Signal During Gait

EMG Activation Timing

            Threshold Detection

            More Complex Techniques

Evoked Potentials

            M-Waves

            H-Reflexes

            V-Waves

            F-Waves

            Peripheral Nerve Conduction Velocity

            Other Evoked Potentials

Ballistic Movements

For Further Reading

 

Appendix 2.1 Calculation of Electric Fields

Appendix 2.2 Calculating the Electric Potential at a Point

Appendix 2.3 Electric Circuits

Appendix 2.4 Charging a Capacitor Through a Resistor

Appendix 2.5 The Muscle Fiber as an RC Circuit

Appendix 3.1 Muscle–Tendon End Effects

Appendix 4.1 EMG Area and Slope Measurement

Appendix 4.2Cross-Correlation Function

Appendix 4.3 Calculating Fourier Coefficients

 

Glossary

References

Author Index

Subject Index

About the Authors

Gary Kamen, PhD, is a professor in the department of kinesiology at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. He has 30 years of experience in the field of kinesiology, including research in basic electromyography, neuromuscular physiology, motor control, exercise neuroscience, motor unit physiology, and numerous electromyographic applications. Through research studies, he has demonstrated the importance of motor unit firing rate for maximal force production in older adults, thus proving the importance of neural activation for muscular strength.  

Kamen has published over 75 articles in the field of electromyography, motor unit recording techniques, motor control, and other concepts related to this book. He also published one of the first texts in exercise science. He is a fellow of both the AmericanCollege of Sports Medicine and the American Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education, as well as a member of several organizations, including the Society for Neuroscience, the International Society for Electrophysiology and Kinesiology, and the International Society of Biomechanics.

David A. Gabriel, PhD, is a professor in the department of physical education and kinesiology at BrockUniversity in St. Catharines, Ontario. He has 20 years of experience conducting research related to kinesiology, rehabilitation, and clinical neurophysiology. This includes surface and indwelling electromyographic techniques as well as computer modeling and simulation of the EMG signal. From this research he has been able to solve difficult problems in EMG data collection, reduction, analysis, and interpretation.

Gabriel published a series of papers on a novel signal processing method for documenting subtle changes in the surface EMG signal and how those changes can be related to motor unit firing patterns. He is also widely published in other areas, including reliability of the surface EMG signal for both kinesiological and clinical studies and modeling and simulation of the surface of the EMG signal.

Gabriel is associate editor for the Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, an editorial board member for the Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, vice president and president-elect of the International Society for Electrophysiology and Kinesiology, a fellow of the AmericanCollege of Sports Medicine, and a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

All ancillaries are free to adopting instructors and available online.

Image bank. Features most of the figures and tables from the text, sorted by chapter. The images can be used in developing a customized presentation based on specific course requirements. A blank PowerPoint template is also provided, along with easy-to-follow instructions for quickly creating a presentation.

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Gary Kamen,David Gabriel

Essentials of Electromyography PDF

$57.00 USD

The interest in and use of electromyography (EMG) have grown significantly in recent years. Researchers have found numerous clinical and research uses for EMG, including biofeedback, gait analysis, and clinical diagnosis for neuromuscular disorders. Yet, until now, few sources have been available to help novices understand the characteristics of the instrumentation, signal analysis techniques, and appropriate EMG applications.

 

Essentials of Electromyographyprovides the perfect starting point for those who plan to use EMG because it aids in the comprehension of issues such as handling noise contamination to the area, slope, and variability of the EMG signal. The text is also a solid reference for practitioners who use EMG, including exercise scientists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, and motor development specialists.

 

The book contains six detailed chapters discussing the anatomy and physiology of muscle, bioelectricity, EMG tools, signal processing, force–fatigue relations, and gait. Through Essentials of Electromyography, readers will

• learn both fundamental and advanced concepts regarding the principles of using EMG, including the use and abuse of electrical recordings of muscle potentials;

• discover the physiological basis of EMG signals, which is explained at an introductory level; and

• explore relevant topics such as electrode configuration, advanced signal processing theory, and locations for extracting EMG information.

 

The text provides a solid review of the relationship between human anatomy and EMG as well as how EMG is applied to clinical areas. It showcases over 160 figures and many qualitative explanations to communicate the principles of EMG, the biophysical basis of EMG, and the appropriate applications of EMG. It also contains appendixes for readers with a deeper understanding of EMG and stronger backgrounds in math; those readers will have the opportunity to work through more detailed EMG calculations. The book is heavily referenced and illustrated with diagrams showing electrical circuits and the progression of electrical impulses.

 

Essentials of Electromyography—which is also available as an e-book—will help readers learn how to apply EMG for biofeedback, back pain, sport activities, and other uses. The text pulls together information scattered in books and articles among the numerous disciplines that use EMG as a tool. With its clear presentation of the concepts and applications of EMG, Essentials of Electromyography will prove to be a valuable text for practitioners and students alike.

 

Preface

Acknowledgments

Acronyms and Symbols

 

Chapter 1. Anatomy and Physiology of Muscle Bioelectric Signals

Anatomical Features of Muscle

Physiology of the Muscle Fiber

            Resting Membrane Potentials

            Generation of the Muscle Fiber Action Potential

            Muscle Fiber Conduction Velocity

Motor Unit Features

            Fiber Organization

            Motor Unit Action Potential

Techniques for Modulating Muscular Force

Other Physiological Influences on the Electromyogram

For Further Reading

 

Chapter 2. Bioelectricity

Forces in Electricity

            Electric Charge

            Electric Fields

            Electric Potential Energy

            Volume-Conducted Potentials

                        The Far Observation Line

                        The Near Observation Line

                        Tripole Representation of the Muscle Fiber Action Potential

Essentials of Electric Circuits

            Capacitance

            Electric Current

            Resistance

            Electrical Energy

            Resistors and Capacitors in a Circuit

                        Charging a Capacitor Through a Resistor

                        Discharging a Capacitor Through a Resistor

                        The Muscle Fiber as a Resistor-Capacitor Circuit

Essentials of Alternating Current

            Conventions of an Alternating Signal

            Effective Voltage and Current

            Capacitance in an AC Circuit

            Impedance

            Cutoff Frequency for an Alternating Current Circuit

For Further Reading

 

Chapter 3. EMG Instrumentation

Electrodes

            The Electrode-Electrolyte Interface

            Half-Cell Potential

            Electrode Types

                        Surface Electrodes

                        Indwelling Electrodes

                                    Needle Electrodes

                                    Wire Electrodes

            Tissue Filtering

Electrode Configuration

            Monopolar Recordings

            Bipolar Recordings

                        Interelectrode Distance

                        Selectivity

            Considerations for Electrode Placement

Amplifier Characteristics

            Differential Gain

            Input Impedance

                        Bias Current

                        Amplifier Noise

                        Cabling

            Frequency Response

                        Bode Plots

                        Decibels

                        Filters

                                    High-Pass Filter

                                    Low-Pass Filter

                                    Band-Pass Filter

                        Practical Applications

                        Electrode Arrays

Grounding

            Safety Grounding

            Signal Grounding

Computer Interfacing

            Sampling

            Horizontal Resolution

            Multiplexing

            Quantization

            Vertical Resolution

For Further Reading

 

Chapter 4. EMG Signal Processing

Amplitude

            Nature of the EMG signal

            Linear Envelope Detection

                        Radio Signal Demodulation

                        Moving Average

                        EMG Signal Demodulation

            Linear Envelope EMG Measurement

                        Area

                        Slope

                        Onset

                        Shape

            Band-Passed EMG Measurement

Cross-Correlation Function

            Background of the Correlation

            Calculation of Cross-Correlation Function

            Muscle Fiber Conduction Velocity

            Electromechanical Delay

            Cross-Talk

Frequency

            Fourier Series

            Frequency Spectrum

            Power Spectrum

            Fourier Transform

            Frequency Spectrum of EMG

            Power Spectral Density of EMG

            Discrete Measures Obtained From the Power Spectral Density Function

Data Window Length

Noise Contamination

            Signal-to-Noise Ratio

            Inherent Noise

                        Electrode Noise

                        Amplifier Noise Sources

            Interference Noise

            Signal Averaging

            Baseline Noise Spectrum Subtraction

            ECG Contamination

Basic Concepts of Digital Filtering

            Residuals Analysis

            Digital Filtering

For Further Reading

 

Chapter 5. EMG–Force and EMG–Fatigue Relationships

Relationships Between Muscular Force and EMG

            EMG Magnitude and Muscular Force

                        Studies Using Isometric Contractions

                        Studies Using Nonisometric Contractions

                        Studies Focusing on Other Factors

            Frequency Analyses

EMG Analysis During Fatiguing Contractions

            EMG Amplitude During Fatigue

            Spectral Frequency Characteristics

Advanced EMG Issues During Fatiguing Contractions

            M-Waves During Fatigue

            The Importance of Muscle Length

            Shifts In Spectral Frequency During Fatigue

            Other EMG–Fatigue Reporting Techniques

            Reliability of EMG Measures During Fatiguing Contractions

            Other Issues and Recommendations

For Further Reading

 

Chapter 6. Other EMG Applications

EMG and Gait

            Indwelling or Surface Electrodes?

            Normalization

            Appropriate Quantitative Measures

            EMG Onset–Offset Analysis

            Visual Presentation of EMG Data During Gait

            Other Gait EMG Issues

            Reliability of the EMG Signal During Gait

EMG Activation Timing

            Threshold Detection

            More Complex Techniques

Evoked Potentials

            M-Waves

            H-Reflexes

            V-Waves

            F-Waves

            Peripheral Nerve Conduction Velocity

            Other Evoked Potentials

Ballistic Movements

For Further Reading

 

Appendix 2.1 Calculation of Electric Fields

Appendix 2.2 Calculating the Electric Potential at a Point

Appendix 2.3 Electric Circuits

Appendix 2.4 Charging a Capacitor Through a Resistor

Appendix 2.5 The Muscle Fiber as an RC Circuit

Appendix 3.1 Muscle–Tendon End Effects

Appendix 4.1 EMG Area and Slope Measurement

Appendix 4.2Cross-Correlation Function

Appendix 4.3 Calculating Fourier Coefficients

 

Glossary

References

Author Index

Subject Index

About the Authors

Gary Kamen, PhD, is a professor in the department of kinesiology at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. He has 30 years of experience in the field of kinesiology, including research in basic electromyography, neuromuscular physiology, motor control, exercise neuroscience, motor unit physiology, and numerous electromyographic applications. Through research studies, he has demonstrated the importance of motor unit firing rate for maximal force production in older adults, thus proving the importance of neural activation for muscular strength.  

Kamen has published over 75 articles in the field of electromyography, motor unit recording techniques, motor control, and other concepts related to this book. He also published one of the first texts in exercise science. He is a fellow of both the AmericanCollege of Sports Medicine and the American Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education, as well as a member of several organizations, including the Society for Neuroscience, the International Society for Electrophysiology and Kinesiology, and the International Society of Biomechanics.

David A. Gabriel, PhD, is a professor in the department of physical education and kinesiology at BrockUniversity in St. Catharines, Ontario. He has 20 years of experience conducting research related to kinesiology, rehabilitation, and clinical neurophysiology. This includes surface and indwelling electromyographic techniques as well as computer modeling and simulation of the EMG signal. From this research he has been able to solve difficult problems in EMG data collection, reduction, analysis, and interpretation.

Gabriel published a series of papers on a novel signal processing method for documenting subtle changes in the surface EMG signal and how those changes can be related to motor unit firing patterns. He is also widely published in other areas, including reliability of the surface EMG signal for both kinesiological and clinical studies and modeling and simulation of the surface of the EMG signal.

Gabriel is associate editor for the Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, an editorial board member for the Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, vice president and president-elect of the International Society for Electrophysiology and Kinesiology, a fellow of the AmericanCollege of Sports Medicine, and a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

All ancillaries are free to adopting instructors and available online.

Image bank. Features most of the figures and tables from the text, sorted by chapter. The images can be used in developing a customized presentation based on specific course requirements. A blank PowerPoint template is also provided, along with easy-to-follow instructions for quickly creating a presentation.

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