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Physical Activity and Health 2nd Edition eBook

Physical Activity and Health 2nd Edition eBook

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    The human body is designed for activity. For most of our history, physical activity was required for survival, but technological advances have eliminated much of the need for hard physical labor. As our activity levels have dropped, it has become clear that a physically inactive lifestyle can lead to a host of health problems. Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive treatment of the research on the benefits of a physically active lifestyle in comparison with the harmful consequences of physical inactivity.

    Written by leading scientists from the United States, Canada, Europe, and Australia, Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, brings together the results of the most important studies on the relationship between physical activity, sedentarism, and various health outcomes. The second edition has been fully updated based on the latest advances in this rapidly changing field and expanded to include the following new content:

    • A chapter on the physiology of inactivity and the effects of sedentary behavior even in people who engage in appropriate amounts of physical activity, which is an area of growing interest

    • More extensive coverage of physical activity, aging, and the brain, including a new chapter on the relationship between physical activity and brain structures and functions

    • A chapter on the development of national and international physical activity and health guidelines, which will help readers better understand how scientific findings are converted into practical recommendations

    Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, offers a detailed yet concise presentation of key concepts as well as a framework to help readers relate results from single studies or collections of studies to the overall paradigm linking physical activity and physical fitness to health. For each of the topics covered, the text provides an overview of the most important research findings, discusses the limitations of the current knowledge base, and identifies directions for future investigation.

    At the core of the text is a review of our current understanding of how physical activity affects health concerns such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and obesity as well as aging and mental health. The text identifies sedentary living habits and poor fitness as major public health problems and examines the potential of physical activity to prevent disease and enhance quality of life. This complete resource also looks at the evolution of the field of physical activity and health; variations in physical activity levels across age, sex, and ethnic groups; the body’s physiological responses to physical activity; dose-response issues; and the influence of genetics on physical activity, fitness, and health. The book ends with an integration of the issues covered and discusses new opportunities for research.

    The second edition of Physical Activity and Health continues to offer clear, user-friendly coverage of the most important concepts and research in the field. Numerous special features will aid readers in their comprehension of the material. Chapter outlines and callout boxes help readers key in on important topics and focus their reading, and chapter summaries, definitions of key terms, and study questions provide tools for review and self-testing. Commonly used acronyms and abbreviations are found on the interior covers for handy reference.

    Where other books have simply promoted physical activity for the individual or a population, Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, completely integrates current knowledge of the relationship between physical activity and health. With contributions from some of the finest scientists in the field, this comprehensive text offers information unmatched in accuracy and reliability.

    Audience

    A textbook for upper-undergraduate and graduate students in kinesiology, exercise science, physical education, public health, health promotion, preventive medicine, and human biology. A reference for professionals.

    Table of Contents

    Preface
    Acknowledgments

    Part I: History and Current Status of the Study of Physical Activity and Health
    Chapter 1:
    Why Study Physical Activity and Health?
    Claude Bouchard, PhD; Steven N. Blair, PED; and William L. Haskell, PhD
    Human Evolution, History, and Physical Activity
    Burden of Chronic Diseases
    Health and Its Determinants
    Aging and Health
    Defining Physical Activity and Physical Fitness
    Physical Inactivity Versus Physical Activity
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 2: Historical Perspectives on Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health
    Russell R. Pate, PhD
    Early Beliefs About Physical Activity and Health
    Scientific Inquiry on Exercise and Health
    Evolution of Physical Activity Guidelines
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 3: Physical Activity and Fitness With Age, Sex, and Ethnic Differences
    Peter T. Katzmarzyk, PhD, FACSM
    Physical Activity
    Physical Fitness
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 4: Sedentary Behavior and Inactivity Physiology
    Marc Hamilton, PhD; and Neville Owen, PhD
    Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, and Public Health
    Inactivity Physiology: The Underlying Biology of Acute and Chronic Muscular Inactivity
    Sedentary Behavior and Metabolic Health: Emerging Epidemiological Evidence
    Humans May Not Have Reached the Pinnacle of Physical Inactivity
    A Comprehensive Sedentary Behavior Research Agenda
    Public Health Implications
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Part II: Effects of Physical Activity on the Human Organism
    Chapter 5:
    Metabolic, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity
    Edward T. Howley, PhD
    Relationship of Energy to Physical Activity
    Oxygen Consumption and Cardiovascular and Respiratory Responses to Exercise
    Effect of Training, Age, and Gender on Maximal Oxygen Uptake
    Application to Exercise Training and Physical Activity Interventions
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 6: Acute Responses to Physical Activity and Exercise
    Adrianne E. Hardman, MSc, PhD
    Lipids and Lipoproteins
    Endothelial Function
    Insulin–Glucose Dynamics
    Blood Pressure
    Hematological Changes
    Immune Function and Inflammation
    Responses Related to Energy Balance
    Augmentation of Acute Effects by Training
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 7: Hormonal Response to Regular Physical Activity
    Peter A. Farrell, PhD
    Defining Hormones
    Importance of Hormonal Regulation
    Regular Physical Activity and Hormonal Adaptations
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 8: Skeletal Muscle Adaptation to Regular Physical Activity
    Howard J. Green, PhD
    Skeletal Muscle and Human Survival
    Muscle Cell: Composition, Structure, and Function
    Muscle Fiber Types and Subtypes
    Muscle Adaptation and Functional Consequences
    Aging Muscle: The Role of Training
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 9: Response of Liver, Kidney, and Other Organs and Tissues to Regular Physical Activity
    Roy J. Shephard, MB, BS, MD (London), PhD, DPE, DLL
    Acute Effects of Physical Activity
    Chronic Effects of Physical Activity
    Strengths and Limitations of the Current Evidence
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Part III: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health
    Chapter 10:
    Physical Activity, Fitness, and Mortality Rates
    Michael J. LaMonte, PhD, MPH; and Steven N. Blair, PED
    Physical Activity and Mortality
    Fitness and Mortality
    Activity or Fitness and Mortality in Adults With Existing Diseases
    Quantifying the Population Mortality Burden of Inactivity
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 11: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Cardiac, Vascular, and Pulmonary Morbidities
    Ian Janssen, PhD
    Low Physical Activity and Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness as Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Morbidities
    Low Physical Activity and Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness as Risk Factors for Pulmonary Morbidities
    Biological Mechanisms
    Role of Physical Activity in Patients with Cardiac, Vascular, and Pulmonary Morbidities
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 12: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Obesity
    Robert Ross, PhD, FACSM; and Ian Janssen, PhD
    Definition and Problem of Overweight and Obesity
    Fat Depots
    Relationships Among Excess Weight, Physical Activity, and Fitness
    Role of Physical Activity in Prevention and Treatment of Excess Weight
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 13: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Diabetes Mellitus
    Roeland J. Middelbeek, MD, MS; and Laurie J. Goodyear, PhD
    Diabetes: Definitions and Prevalence
    Epidemiology, Etiology, and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes
    Impact of Physical Activity on Insulin and Glucose Metabolism
    Epidemiological Evidence Indicating Benefits of Physical Activity in Preventing Type 2 Diabetes
    Summary of Randomized Controlled Trials on the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes
    Importance of Regular Physical Activity for People With Type 2 Diabetes
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 14: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Cancer
    I-Min Lee, MBBS, MPH, ScD
    Importance of Cancer
    How Physical Activity and Physical Fitness Decrease the Risk of Developing Cancer
    How We Study Whether Physical Activity and Physical Fitness Decrease the Risk of Developing Cancer
    Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Site-Specific Cancers
    Physical Activity and Cancer Survivors
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 15: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Joint and Bone Health
    Jennifer M. Hootman, PhD, ATC, FACSM, FNATA
    Scientific Evidence
    Strengths and Limitations of the Evidence
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 16: Physical Activity, Muscular Fitness, and Health
    Neil McCartney, PhD; and Stuart M. Phillips, PhD
    History of Resistance Training and Its Role in Health
    Fundamental Aspects of Resistance Training
    Resistance Training Throughout the Life Span
    Resistance Training in Disease and Disability
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 17: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Children
    Thomas Rowland, MD
    Understanding the Exercise–Health Link in Children
    Measurement of Physical Activity in Youth
    Defining the Kinds and Amount of Physical Activities for Health
    Optimal Intervention Strategies
    Biological Effects on Physical Activity in Youth
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 18: Risks of Physical Activity
    Evert A.L.M. Verhagen, PhD, FECSS; Esther M.F. van Sluijs, PhD; and Willem van Mechelen, MD, PhD, FACSM, FECSS
    Risks of Physical Activity and Sport Participation
    Minimizing Risk and Maximizing Benefits
    Recommendations for Future Research
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Part IV: Physical Activity, Fitness, Aging, and Brain Functions
    Chapter 19:
    Physical Activity, Fitness, and Aging
    Loretta DiPietro, PhD, MPH
    The Aging Process
    Methodological Considerations in Aging Research
    Demographics of Physical Activity Among Older Adults
    Dimensions of Physical Activity and Their Relationship to Health and Function in Aging
    Programmatic Issues in Promoting Physical Activity in Older Populations
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 20: Physical Activity and Brain Functions
    Kirk I. Erickson, PhD
    Descriptive Questions
    Mechanistic Questions
    Applied Questions: Populations Benefiting From Physical Activity
    Moderating Questions: Factors Moderating the Effect of Physical Activity
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 21: Exercise and Its Effects on Mental Health
    John S. Raglin, PhD; and Gregory S. Wilson, PED, FACSM
    Research Paradigms of Exercise and Mental Health Research
    Exercise and Depression
    Exercise and Anxiety
    Exercise and Schizophrenia
    Putative Mechanisms for the Psychological Benefits of Exercise
    Detrimental Psychological Responses to Exercise: The Overtraining Syndrome
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Part V: How Much Is Required and How Do We Get There?
    Chapter 22:
    Dose–Response Issues in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health
    William L. Haskell, PhD
    Principles Guiding the Body’s Response to Activity
    Components of the Physical Activity Dose
    Factors Determining Optimal Activity Dose
    Physical Activity and Fitness: Dose for Health Benefits
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 23: From Science to Physical Activity Guidelines
    Mark S. Tremblay, PhD; and William L. Haskell, PhD
    Stages of Physical Activity Guideline Development
    Strengths, Limitations, and Challenges
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Part VI: New Challenges and Opportunities
    Chapter 24:
    Genetic Differences in the Relationships Among Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health
    Tuomo Rankinen, PhD; and Claude Bouchard, PhD
    Basics of Human Genetics
    Events in Human Genes and Genomes
    Genetic Variation in Exercise Traits Among Sedentary People
    Genetics of Physical Activity Level
    Individual Differences in Response to Regular Exercise
    Genes and Responses to Exercise
    Trait-Specific Response to Exercise
    Personalized Exercise Medicine
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Chapter 25: An Integrated View of Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health
    William L. Haskell, PhD; Steven N. Blair, PED; and Claude Bouchard, PhD
    Physical Activity Versus Inactivity: Universal Value Versus Damaging Consequences
    Developing and Implementing Physical Activity Plans
    Research Questions and Issues
    Summary
    Review Materials

    Index
    About the Contributors
    About the Editors

    About the Editor

    Claude Bouchard, PhD, is the director of the Human Genomics Laboratory at Pennington Biomedical Research Center, a campus of the Louisiana State University System, where he also holds the John W. Barton Sr. chair in genetics and nutrition. He was director of the Physical Activity Sciences Laboratory at Laval University, Quebec City, Canada, for over 20 years. Dr. Bouchard holds a BPed from Laval University, an MSc in exercise physiology from the University of Oregon at Eugene, and a PhD in population genetics from the University of Texas at Austin.

    For four decades, his research has dealt with the role of physical activity, and the lack thereof, on physiology, metabolism, and indicators of health, taking into account genetic uniqueness. He has performed research on the contributions of gene sequence variation and the benefits to be expected from regular activity in terms of changes in cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors.

    Dr. Bouchard has served as program leader for four consensus conferences and symposia pertaining to various aspects of physical activity and health. He has published more than 1,000 scientific papers and has edited several books and monographs dealing with physical activity and health.

    Dr. Bouchard is the recipient of the Willendorf Award from the International Association for the Study of Obesity, the Sandoz Award from the Canadian Atherosclerosis Society, the Albert Creff Award of the National Academy of Medicine of France, and four honoris causa doctorates (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, University of South Carolina, University of Guelph, and Brock University). He is a foreign member of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium and a member of the Order of Canada.

    Dr. Bouchard is former president of the Canadian Society for Applied Physiology, the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, and the International Association for the Study of Obesity. He is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Nutrition, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

    Steven N. Blair, PED, is a professor at the Arnold School of Public Health at the University of South Carolina in Columbia. His research focuses on the associations between lifestyle and health, with a specific emphasis on exercise, physical fitness, body composition, and chronic disease. As one of the most highly cited exercise scientists currently active in research, Dr. Blair has published more than 550 articles, chapters, and books in scientific and professional literature. He also was the senior scientific editor for the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. Dr. Blair has received numerous awards, including the Honor Award from the American College of Sports Medicine, Population Science Award from the American Heart Association, U.S. Surgeon General’s Medallion, Folksam Epidemiology Prize from the Karolinska Institute of Stockholm, and a MERIT award from the National Institutes of Health. He also has received honorary doctoral degrees from universities in the United States, Belgium, and England.

    Dr. Blair is a fellow of the American College of Epidemiology, Society of Behavioral Medicine, American College of Sports Medicine, American Heart Association, and American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education. He was also elected to membership in the American Epidemiological Society. He was the first president of the National Coalition for Promoting Physical Activity and is a past president of the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education.

    William L. Haskell, PhD, is emeritus professor of medicine in the Stanford Prevention Research Center and the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford School of Medicine. He holds an honorary MD degree from Linkoping University in Sweden.

    For more than 40 years, his research has investigated the relationships between physical activity and health. He has been involved at the national and international levels in the development of physical activity and fitness guidelines and recommendations for physical activity in health promotion and disease prevention.

    Dr. Haskell has served as principal investigator on major NIH-funded research projects demonstrating the health benefits of physical activity. For the past 17 years, he has been a member of the planning committee and faculty for the CDC-sponsored research course on physical activity and public health. From 1968 to 1970, he was program director for the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. He also served as chair of the Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which documented the scientific basis for the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. From 2008 to 2010 he was a scientific advisor to the World Health Organization for the development of Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health (2010) and to the United Kingdom Health Ministries for the development of physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines for the home countries. Currently he is chair of the International Review Panel for the Evaluation of Exercise and Sports Sciences in the Nordic Countries.

    He is past president of the American College of Sports Medicine and founder and past president of the American College of Sports Medicine Foundation. He was a fellow with the Exercise and Rehabilitation Council, American Heart Association, and American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation.

    Reviews

    “With the vast number of topics it covers as well as the examples of the practical application of the underlying principles it presents, this book is an excellent learning and teaching resource.”

    -- Doody’s Book Review (5 star review)