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Critical Essays in Applied Sport Psychology

Critical Essays in Applied Sport Psychology

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    Book

    Critical Essays in Applied Sport Psychology is a thought-provoking collection of 16 essays discussing the field’s traditions, research models, and practices. The editors have brought together a team of internationally recognized sport psychologists with backgrounds in various disciplines to offer insights into sport cultures ranging from youth sport to professional sport. The authors of these cutting-edge essays ask challenging questions about the current state of applied sport psychology, addressing the priorities of the field, its research methods, and its effectiveness in preparing students for research and consulting.

    With ideas that will interest those in the applied sport psychology field as well as psychologists, psychotherapists, and research psychologists, Critical Essays in Applied Sport Psychology offers students and practitioners an opportunity to reflect on their own approaches to and assumptions grounding their current or future professional practice. Each essay offers a distinct perspective on applied sport psychology practice that challenges current applied training requirements and practices, with discussion questions at the conclusion of each essay to stimulate in-class discussion and individual reflection. Readers may also use these essays as springboards for pursuing new areas of research.

    Part I of the text begins with six essays discussing the possibilities afforded by the use of research and inquiry within applied practice. The authors of these essays explore how stories of self and of others can facilitate an increased appreciation of the complexity of people’s lives both inside and outside of sport. The essays in part II concern issues in professional service delivery with special emphasis on alternative ways to conceptualize and practice applied sport psychology. In part III, three essays explore specific topics in sport psychology practice dealing with both sport-specific and general sociocultural contexts.

    Critical Essays in Applied Sport Psychology offers valuable perspectives not only for sport psychology professionals, students, and researchers but also for those who work alongside, manage, or employ applied psychology professionals. By looking beyond the traditional psychological skills training model, Critical Essays in Applied Sport Psychology offers new ways of uncovering and representing knowledge that will stimulate debate and open discussion on current research, methodologies, practices, and training requirements in applied sport psychology.

    Table of Contents
    Preface
    Introduction: David Gilbourne
    Introduction: Mark Andersen
    Our Motivations
    The Abuse of Language
    Closing Thoughts

    Part I. Methodologies and Inquiries in Research and Practice

    Essay 1. A Narrative Perspective: Identity, Well-Being, and Trauma in Professional Sport
    Kitrina Douglas, University of Bristol, United Kingdom
    David Carless, Leeds Metropolitan University, United Kingdom
    Introduction
    The Potential of Narrative Inquiry
    Identifying Sport Narratives
    Silencing Alternative Narrative Types in Sport
    Consequences of the Performance Narrative
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Essay 2. Representing Applied Research Experiences Through Performance: Extending Beyond Text
    David Llewellyn, Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom
    David Gilbourne, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, United Kingdom
    Carmel Triggs, University of Chester, United Kingdom
    Introduction
    Ethnodrama and Theater
    Sport-Based Ethnodrama Examples
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Essay 3. In Praise of Quantitative Methods: How Numbers Can Change Culture
    Harriet D. Speed, Victoria University, Australia
    Mark B. Andersen, Victoria University, Australia
    Introduction
    Background: The Sport
    The Research
    The Research Outcomes
    Interpreting the Numbers
    Recommendations
    Response to the Research Outcomes and Recommendations
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Essay 4. Critical Reflections on Doing Reflective Practice and Writing Reflective Texts
    Zoe Knowles, Liverpool John Moores University, UK
    David Gilbourne, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, UK
    Ailsa Niven, Herriot-Watt University, United Kingdom
    Introduction
    Current Reflective Practice Studies
    Expanding the Boundaries of Reflective Writing
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Essay 5. Representing Multilayered Lives: Embracing Context Through the Storied Self
    David Gilbourne, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, United Kingdom
    David Llewellyn, Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom
    Introduction
    The Emergence of New Epistemologies
    A Fracture in Convention
    Autoethnography: A New Form of Writing
    Autoethnographic Illustrations: Personal Selections
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Essay 6. The Practitioner and Client as Storytellers: Metaphors and Folktales in Applied Sport Psychology Practice
    Mark B. Andersen, Victoria University, Australia
    Harriet D. Speed, Victoria University, Australia
    Introduction
    The Power of Metaphors and Folktales
    The Wise Fool: Mullah Nasruddin
    Metaphors in Popular Media
    An Attachment Metaphor: Two Monks, a River, and a Lady
    A Story of Attachment: Hungry Ghosts
    A Story of Self-Protection: Hermit Crabs
    Hearing and Listening to Others and Ourselves
    A Final Metaphor
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Part II. Issues in Professional Delivery

    Essay 7. Collaborative Practice: Multidisciplinary Support Alongside Multiagency Engagement
    Dearbhla McCullough, Roehampton University, United Kingdom
    Michael Korzinski, PhD, Private practice, United Kingdom
    Introduction
    K’s History
    Psychotherapy Support: Michael Korzinski
    Sport Psychology Support: Dearbhla McCullough
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Essay 8. Playful Deviance
    William B. Strean, University of Alberta, Canada
    DJ Williams, Idaho State University, United States
    Introduction
    Playful Research Deviance
    What BDSM Can Teach Us About Sport Psychology
    Applied Practice
    Lessons Learned from Social Work, Forensics, and Playing With Bad Guys
    Labeling and Other Insanity From Dr. Deviant
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Essay 9. Sport Psychology Services Are Multicultural Encounters: Differences as Strengths in Therapeutic Relationships
    Stephanie J. Hanrahan, The University of Queensland, Australia
    Introduction
    Cultural Awareness: Self and Other
    Relationships: Multicultural at the Micro Level
    Developing Cultural Awareness
    Adapting Behaviors to Suit the Cultural Context
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Essay 10. Problems in Reflective Practice: Self-Bootstrapping Versus Therapeutic Supervision
    Jack C. Watson, West Virginia University, United States
    John R. Lubker, West Texas A&M University, United States
    Judy Van Raalte, Springfield College, United States
    Introduction
    Self-Reflection
    Supervision
    Self-Reflection vs. Supervision
    Future of Supervision
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Essay 11. If You Meet the Buddha on the Football Field, Tackle Him!
    Mark. B. Andersen, Victoria University, Australia
    Joe Mannion, Private practice, United States
    Introduction
    Buddhism’s Role in Sport Psychology
    Two Tales From Our Practice
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Essay 12. Taming the Wild West: Training and Supervision in Applied Sport Psychology
    David Tod, Aberwystwyth University, United Kingdom
    David Lavallee, Aberwystwyth University, United Kingdom
    Introduction
    The Current State of Applied Sport Psychology Practice
    Overemphasis on the PST Approach
    Underemphasis on Process-Oriented Issues
    Supervision During Training
    Supervision After Training
    Disconnected Staff
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Essay 13. Epiphanies and Learning: A Rejection of the Performance-Based Myopia
    David Gilbourne, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, United Kingdom
    David Priestley, Private practice, United Kingdom
    Introduction
    Methodology and Applied Thinking: The Rationale for My Challenge Some Storytelling
    The Value of Stories
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Part III. Issues in Sport Psychology Practice

    Essay 14. Making Your Way in the Game: Boundary Situations Within England’s Professional Football World
    Mark Nesti, Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom
    Martin Littlewood, Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom
    Introduction
    The Football Environment
    Transition and Identity
    Existential Psychology
    Existential Psychology and Transition in Sport
    A Narrative: Trusting Yourself in Critical Moments
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Essay 15. Safeguarding Child Athletes From Abuse in Elite Sport Systems: The Role of the Sport Psychologist
    Trisha Leahy, Hong Kong Sports Institute
    Introduction
    Issues of Safeguarding
    The Biopsychosocial Model
    Sexual Abuse in Sport
    Implications for Sport Psychology Practice
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Essay 16. Negotiating Expectations in Football’s Complex Social Culture
    Robyn L. Jones, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, United Kingdom
    Kieran Kingston, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, United Kingdom
    Carly Stewart, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, United Kingdom
    Introduction
    Writing and Engaging With Creative Coaching Scenarios
    Playing the Game: The Social Rules of Coaching Practice
    Dealing With the Complexity: An Applied Psychology Approach
    Outlining a Framework: A Multitheoretical Perspective
    Complexity Theory and Orchestration: Recognizing and Manipulating Context
    Conclusion
    Ideas for Reflection and Debate
    References

    Audience

    A text for graduate-level courses or seminars and researchers in sport psychology and applied sport psychology. A reference for academic and institutional libraries and sport psychology consultants.

    Table of Contents

    Part I. Methodologies and Inquiries in Research and Practice

    Essay 1. A Narrative Perspective: Identity, Well-Being, and Trauma in Professional Sport

    Kitrina Douglas

    University of Bristol, United Kingdom

    David Carless

    Leeds Metropolitan University, United Kingdom

    Introduction

    The Potential of Narrative Inquiry

    Identifying Sport Narratives

    Silencing Alternative Narrative Types in Sport

    Consequences of the Performance Narrative

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    Essay 2. Representing Applied Research Experiences Through Performance: Extending Beyond Text

    David Llewellyn

    Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom

    David Gilbourne

    University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, United Kingdom

    Carmel Triggs

    University of Chester, United Kingdom

    Introduction

    Ethnodrama and Theater

    Sport-Based Ethnodrama Examples

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    Essay 3. In Praise of Quantitative Methods: How Numbers Can Change Culture

    Harriet D. Speed

    Victoria University, Australia

    Mark B. Andersen

    Victoria University, Australia

    Introduction

    Background: The Sport

    The Research

    The Research Outcomes

    Interpreting the Numbers

    Recommendations

    Response to the Research Outcomes and Recommendations

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    Essay 4. Critical Reflections on Doing Reflective Practice and Writing Reflective Texts

    Zoe Knowles

    Liverpool John Moores University, UK

    David Gilbourne

    University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, UK

    Ailsa Niven

    Herriot-Watt University, United Kingdom

    Introduction

    Current Reflective Practice Studies

    Expanding the Boundaries of Reflective Writing

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    Essay 5. Representing Multilayered Lives: Embracing Context Through the Storied Self

    David Gilbourne

    University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, United Kingdom

    David Llewellyn

    Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom

    Introduction

    The Emergence of New Epistemologies

    A Fracture in Convention

    Autoethnography: A New Form of Writing

    Autoethnographic Illustrations: Personal Selections

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    Essay 6. The Practitioner and Client as Storytellers: Metaphors and Folktales in Applied Sport Psychology Practice

    Mark B. Andersen

    Victoria University, Australia

    Harriet D. Speed

    Victoria University, Australia

    Introduction

    The Power of Metaphors and Folktales

    The Wise Fool: Mullah Nasruddin

    Metaphors in Popular Media

    An Attachment Metaphor: Two Monks, a River, and a Lady

    A Story of Attachment: Hungry Ghosts

    A Story of Self-Protection: Hermit Crabs

    Hearing and Listening to Others and Ourselves

    A Final Metaphor

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    Part II. Issues in Professional Delivery

    Essay 7. Collaborative Practice: Multidisciplinary Support Alongside Multiagency Engagement

    Dearbhla McCullough

    Roehampton University, United Kingdom

    Michael Korzinski, PhD

    Private practice, Unite Kingdom

    Introduction

    K’s History

    Psychotherapy Support: Michael Korzinski

    Sport Psychology Support: Dearbhla McCullough

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    Essay 8. Playful Deviance

    William B. Strean

    University of Alberta, Canada

    DJ Williams

    Idaho State University, United States

    Introduction

    Playful Research Deviance

    What BDSM Can Teach Us About Sport Psychology

    Applied Practice

    Lessons Learned from Social Work, Forensics, and Playing With Bad Guys

    Labeling and Other Insanity From Dr. Deviant

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    Essay 9. Sport Psychology Services Are Multicultural Encounters: Differences as Strengths in Therapeutic Relationships

    Stephanie J. Hanrahan

    The University of Queensland, Australia

    Introduction

    Cultural Awareness: Self and Other

    Relationships: Multicultural at the Micro Level

    Developing Cultural Awareness

    Adapting Behaviors to Suit the Cultural Context

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    Essay 10. Problems in Reflective Practice: Self-Bootstrapping Versus Therapeutic Supervision

    Jack C. Watson

    West Virginia University, United States

    John R. Lubker

    West Texas A&M University, United States

    Judy Van Raalte

    Springfield College, United States

    Introduction

    Self-Reflection

    Supervision

    Self-Reflection vs. Supervision

    Future of Supervision

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    Essay 11. If You Meet the Buddha on the Football Field, Tackle Him!

    Mark. B. Andersen

    Victoria University, Australia

    Joe Mannion

    Private practice, United States

    Introduction

    Buddhism’s Role in Sport Psychology

    Two Tales From Our Practice

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    Essay 12. Taming the Wild West: Training and Supervision in Applied Sport Psychology

    David Tod

    Aberwystwyth University, United Kingdom

    David Lavallee

    Aberwystwyth University, United Kingdom

    Introduction

    The Current State of Applied Sport Psychology Practice

    Overemphasis on the PST Approach

    Underemphasis on Process-Oriented Issues

    Supervision During Training

    Supervision After Training

    Disconnected Staff

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    Essay 13. Epiphanies and Learning: A Rejection of the Performance-Based Myopia

    David Gilbourne

    University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, United Kingdom

    David Priestley

    Private practice, United Kingdom

    Introduction

    Methodology and Applied Thinking: The Rationale for My Challenge Some Storytelling

    The Value of Stories

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    Part III. Issues in Sport Psychology Practice

    Essay 14. Making Your Way in the Game: Boundary Situations Within England’s Professional Football World

    Mark Nesti and

    Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom

    Martin Littlewood

    Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom

    Introduction

    The Football Environment

    Transition and Identity

    Existential Psychology

    Existential Psychology and Transition in Sport

    A Narrative: Trusting Yourself in Critical Moments

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    Essay 15. Safeguarding Child Athletes From Abuse in Elite Sport Systems: The Role of the Sport Psychologist

    Trisha Leahy

    Hong Kong Sports Institute

    Introduction

    Issues of Safeguarding

    The Biopsychosocial Model

    Sexual Abuse in Sport

    Implications for Sport Psychology Practice

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    Essay 16. Negotiating Expectations in Football’s Complex Social Culture

    Robyn L. Jones

    University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, United Kingdom

    Kieran Kingston

    University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, United Kingdom

    Carly Stewart

    University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, United Kingdom

    Introduction

    Writing and Engaging With Creative Coaching Scenarios

    Playing the Game: The Social Rules of Coaching Practice

    Dealing With the Complexity: An Applied Psychology Approach

    Outlining a Framework: A Multitheoretical Perspective

    Complexity Theory and Orchestration: Recognizing and Manipulating Context

    Conclusion

    Ideas for Reflection and Debate

    References

    About the Editor

    David Gilbourne, PhD, is a professor of qualitative research in sport at the University of Wales Institute Cardiff and teaches in the Cardiff School of Sport. He cofounded and codirected the first and second International Conferences on Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise (2004 and 2006) and acted as external advisor to the third conference at Roehampton University, UK, in 2009. Gilbourne also cofounded Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise, the first peer-reviewed journal dedicated to disseminating qualitative research from all sport-based disciplines.

    Gilbourne speaks internationally on the topic of sport-oriented social science qualitative research, and in 2010 he acted as visiting professor at Copenhagen University. His writing focuses on issues of qualitative methodology. Alongside colleagues, he has commented frequently on the topic of action research and reflective practice in applied sport psychology. His current work explores a range of autoethnographic communications with particular emphasis on storytelling through creative writing, drama, and poetry.

    Mark B. Andersen, PhD, is a professor in the School of Sport and Exercise Science and the Institute for Sport, Exercise, and Active Living at Victoria University in Melbourne, Australia. He also coordinates the master and doctoral degrees in applied psychology in the School of Social Science and Psychology. He received his PhD in psychology with a doctoral minor in exercise and sport sciences from the University of Arizona at Tucson in 1988.

    In 1994 Andersen received the Dorothy V. Harris Memorial Award for excellence as a young scholar and practitioner in applied sport psychology from the Association for Applied Sport Psychology. He has been a keynote speaker at 10 international and national conferences and has published more than 60 articles in refereed journals and more than 75 book chapters and proceedings. He has edited three other Human Kinetics books: Doing Sport Psychology, SportPsychology in Practice, and Overtraining Athletes: Personal Journeys in Sport. Andersen is a member of the Australian Psychological Society (APS) and APS College of Sport and Exercise Psychology. In addition to his academic duties, he maintains a small psychotherapy practice in Melbourne.

    Reviews

    “Critical Essays in Applied Sport Psychology is refreshingly and excitingly different from the usual applied sport psychology text. There is much to interest and inform in this book, and it provides valuable, and sometimes unusual and challenging perspectives. I thoroughly recommend Critical Essays in Applied Sport Psychology to all colleagues and students in sport psychology.”

    --International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology