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Applied Anatomy and Biomechanics in Sport eBook-2nd Edition

Applied Anatomy and Biomechanics in Sport eBook-2nd Edition

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    Ebook

    The e-book for Applied Anatomy and Biomechanics in Sport, Second Edition, is available at a reduced price and allows readers to highlight and take notes throughout the text. When purchased through the Human Kinetics site, access to the e-book is immediately granted when the order is received.

    Applied Anatomy and Biomechanics in Sport, Second Edition, concentrates on the various ways in which an athlete—whether the average participant or the elite competitor—can modify technique to achieve optimal performance. Its emphasis on athletic assessment and physical capacity modification provides a unique perspective that will help coaches and other sport professionals appraise the body structure of their athletes so that strengths can be fully utilized and weaknesses improved. The text also considers growth, development, and gender, and it makes readers aware of mechanical overstresses that can impair performance and cause injuries.

    The second edition has undergone a complete revision and is designed with practical application in mind. It includes chapter contributions by respected sport scientists presenting recent research and cutting-edge information on topics such as:

    • the development of improved training methods to increase explosive power,
    • the use of elastic energy in the development of power and speed,
    • the modification of strength and body composition to improve performance, and
    • the application of proportionality and posture to sport performance.

    Applied Anatomy and Biomechanics in Sport relies on current research findings and proven methods in developing physical athletic performance to help readers learn to recognize and use appropriate methods to develop optimal physical qualities for skilled performance. The text categorizes 30 international sports into nine distinct groups organized by common features: racket sports; aquatic sports; gymnastics and power sports; track, field, and cycling; mobile field sports; set field sports; court sports; contact field sports; and martial arts. Within each group, techniques that improve performance are analyzed with specific examples given from a variety of international coaches.

    The applied nature of the content is enhanced through a building-block approach that facilitates the understanding of the elements of human performance and how the interaction of those elements can be fine-tuned. The text employs a four-part structure:

    • Fundamental Concepts relate to assessment and modification of an athlete’s body structure, physical capacity, and technique, as well as talent identification and profiling.
    • Applied Anatomy provides both a theoretical framework for valid and reliable assessment and evidence-based modification of an athlete’s body structure and physical capacity.
    • Applied Biomechanics explains how the analysis of sport technique may be used to improve athletic performance.
    • A Practical Example uses in-depth analysis to provide a specific case for assessment of physical capacity and biomechanics of an athlete, the intervention program and technique modification employed, and the resultant influence on the athlete’s performance.

    Applied Anatomy and Biomechanics in Sport covers the latest assessment techniques used by exercise and sport science specialists to evaluate human physiques, physical capacities, and sport techniques. Using this text, readers can integrate and apply the elements of body structure, body composition, assessment, physiology, and biomechanics to assess current capabilities and enhance the performance of athletes.

    Table of Contents

    Part I. Fundamental Concepts

    Chapter 1. The Assessment and Modification Model
    Timothy R. Ackland, PhD, John Bloomfield, PhD, and Bruce C. Elliott, PhD
    The Assessment and Modification Model
    Sports Science Theoretical Base
    Observation and Assessment
    Comparison and Profiling
    Intervention Priority
    Modification
    Pedagogical Considerations
    Re-assessment
    Conclusion

    Chapter 2. Talent Identification and Profiling
    Jason P. Gulbin, PhD, and Timothy R. Ackland, PhD
    Talent Identification
    Profiling
    Conclusion

    Part II. Applied Anatomy: Assessment and Modification of Physical Capacities

    Chapter 3. Absolute Body Size
    Timothy S. Olds, PhD, and Grant R. Tomkinson, PhD
    The Principle of Morphological Optimization
    Normative Data on Absolute Body Size in Sportspeople
    The Physics of Absolute Body Size
    Secular Trends in Absolute Body Size
    Consequences of the Search for Size
    Kinanthropometric Assessment

    Chapter 4. Somatotype in Sport
    J. E. Lindsay Carter, PhD, and Timothy R. Ackland, PhD
    Introduction
    Development of Somatotype Rating Methods
    The Heath-Carter Anthropometric Method
    Somatotype and Sport Performance
    Desirable Body Types for High Level Performance
    Exceptions to the Standard Body Shape and Size
    Sport Selection and Somatotype
    Somatotype Modification
    Changes in Body Type During Growth
    Conclusion

    Chapter 5. Body Composition in Sport
    Deborah A. Kerr, PhD, and Arthur D. Stewart, PhD
    Introduction
    Factors Affecting Body Composition
    Body Composition Assessment
    Body Composition and Sports Performance
    Nutritional Changes to Modify Body Composition
    Conclusions

    Chapter 6. Proportionality
    Timothy R. Ackland, PhD, and J. Hans De Ridder, PhD
    Significance of Proportionality Modification in Sport
    Effect of Growth on Proportionality
    Proportionality Assessment
    Proportionality Applied to Sport Performance
    Proportionality Characteristics of Athletes
    Racial Characteristics
    Body Modification
    Technique Modification
    Conclusion

    Chapter 7. Posture
    Peter Hamer, PhD, and John Bloomfield, PhD
    Evolution and the Development of Posture
    Changes in Posture During Growth
    Maintenance of Posture
    Advantages of Good Posture
    Postural Diversity within Individuals
    Posture and its Relationship to Somatotype
    Postural Defects
    Static and Dynamic Posture
    Posture Assessment
    Desirable Postures for High Level Sport Performance
    Modifying Posture and Technique to Improve Performance
    Conclusion

    Chapter 8. Strength
    Michael McGuigan, PhD, and Nicholas Ratamess, PhD
    Relationship Between Strength, Power and Strength-Endurance
    Value of Strength in Sport
    Muscle Structure and Function
    Muscle Mechanics and Neuromuscular Considerations
    Factors Affecting the Development of Muscular Function
    Strength Assessment
    General Training Principles
    Strength Training Program Design
    Strength Training Methods and Techniques
    Strength-Endurance Training Methods
    Strength Training, Injuries and Injury Prevention
    Summary

    Chapter 9. Power
    Robert U. Newton, PhD, and William J. Kraemer, PhD
    Introduction
    Maximal Power Production Defined
    Why is Maximal Power Important?
    Factors Contributing to Maximal Power Output
    Performance Qualities Contributing to Power
    Assessment of Muscular Power
    Training Methods for the Development of Power
    Summary

    Chapter 10. Speed
    John Cronin, PhD, and Anthony J. Blazevich, PhD
    Introduction
    Neural Considerations
    Morphological Considerations
    Endocrine Considerations
    Biochemical Considerations
    Biomechanical and Anthropometric Considerations
    Assessing Speed
    Developing Speed
    Conclusion

    Chapter 11. Flexibility
    Patria Hume, PhD, and Duncan Reid MHSc (Hons)
    Definitions of Stretching and the Resulting Flexibility-Extensibility
    Anatomy and Physiology Components Targeted for Stretching
    Types of Stretching Procedure and Technique
    Mechanisms of Stretching
    Does Stretching Help Improve Sport Performance or Reduce Risk of Injury?
    Other Factors Can Affect the Effectiveness of Stretching and the Resulting Flexibility
    How do you Measure Improvement in Flexibility?
    Conclusions

    Chapter 12. Balance and Agility
    David Lloyd, PhD, Timothy R. Ackland, PhD, and Jodie Cochrane, PhD
    Factors Affecting Balance
    Assessing Balance
    Improving Balance for Sport
    Protection from Joint Injury
    Factors Affecting Agility
    Assessing Agility
    Improving Agility for Sport
    Conclusion

    Chapter 13. Modifying Physical Capacities
    Timothy R. Ackland, PhD, Deborah A. Kerr, PhD, and Robert U. Newton, PhD
    Resistance Training Guidelines
    Resistance Training Exercises
    Stretching Exercises
    Training Programs for Specific Sports
    Conclusion

    Part III. Biomechanics: Assessment and Modification of Sport Techniques

    Chapter 14. Analysis of Sports Performance
    Bruce Elliott, PhD, and Duane Knudson, PhD
    Models of Technique Analysis
    Qualitative or Subjective Analysis
    Quantitative Analysis
    Conclusion

    Chapter 15. Image Analysis in Sports Performance
    Jacqueline A. Alderson, PhD, and Bruce C. Elliott, PhD
    Background
    Errors in Motion Analysis
    Planar Video Analysis
    3D Motion Analysis
    Data Filtering
    Conclusions

    Chapter 16. The Application of Biomechanics in the Improvement of Sport Performance
    Bruce C. Elliott, PhD, and Damian Farrow, PhD
    Instructional Approaches in Technique Modification
    Preparation of Athletes Involved in High-Speed Activities
    Biomechanical Considerations in Reducing Sporting Injury Rates
    Conclusion

    Chapter 17. Mechanics in Sport: Specific Applications
    Bruce C. Elliott, PhD, Timothy R. Ackland, PhD, and Jacqueline A. Alderson, PhD
    Balance
    Newton’s Laws of Motion
    Linking of Linear and Angular Motion
    Projectile Motion
    Momentum
    Moments of Force and Torque
    Energy
    Coefficient of Restitution
    Coordination and Summation of Body Segments
    Friction
    Centripetal Force
    Fluid Dynamics

    Part IV. Practical Example

    Chapter 18. A Practical Example: Pole Vault
    Timothy R. Ackland, PhD, Andrew Lyttle, PhD, and Bruce C. Elliott, PhD
    Assessment of Physical Capacity and Intervention Program
    Biomechanical Assessment and Technique Modification
    Influence on Performance

    About the Editor

    Timothy R. Ackland, PhD, is a professor of functional anatomy and biomechanics in the School of Exercise, Sport Science, and Health at the University of Western Australia. His research interests include the mechanics of human movement with themes spanning exercise rehabilitation, high-performance sport, and human performance in industry. Dr. Ackland has published more than 70 peer-reviewed papers as well as three academic books and 20 book chapters. Currently, Dr. Ackland is a director of Sports Medicine Australia and is on the review boards of four international journals. He recently served as the scientific chair for the fifth IOC World Congress on Sport Sciences for the 2000 Sydney Olympics and as the 2001 conference cochair for Sports Medicine Australia in Perth. Since 1991, he has been the principal of Ackland Marshall and Associates, Ergonomics Consultants.

    Bruce C. Elliott, PhD, FACHPER, FASMF, FISBS, FAAKPE, is the senior biomechanist and head of the School of Human Movement and Exercise Science at the University of Western Australia. He has a keen interest in performance optimization and injury reduction in sport and has published more than 170 refereed articles, 50 refereed conference proceedings, and 40 books or book chapters in this general area. He is an editorial board member of Sports Biomechanics, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, Journal of Sports Sciences, and the International Journal of Sport and Health Sciences.

    Elliott is a sought-after international speaker on the application of biomechanics to sport. He was the keynote speaker at the first World Congress on Racket Sports, the first World Congress of Cricket, and the third World Congress of Medicine and Science in Tennis. A fellow of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, Sports Medicine Australia, and the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education, he was also the inaugural chair of the Western Australian Institute of Sport and inaugural vice-president of the Australian Association of Exercise and Sport Science. In addition, Elliot served as the scientific chair for the fifth IOC World Congress on Sport Sciences and was the organizer of the research projects at the Sydney 2000 Olympics. He was the president-elect of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports and sits on the coaching advisory panel of Tennis Australia and the research board of Cricket Australia.

    John Bloomfield, PhD, is an emeritus professor at the University of Western Australia and a former director of the Hollywood Functional Rehabilitation Clinic at Hollywood Private Hospital in Perth. He left Australia in 1960 on a Fulbright scholarship to pursue postgraduate study at the University of Oregon in the United States. After receiving his PhD in 1968, he returned to Australia to take a position at the University of Western Australia.

    Throughout his notable career, Bloomfield has served as president of Sports Medicine Australia, chairman of the Australian Sports Science Council, chairman of the Australian Institute of Sport, and cochairman of the Australian Sports Commission. He has authored more than 100 scientific papers and five books in sport and sport science as well as three major government reports on the development of sport in Australia. He was a National Surf Lifesaving champion and elite-level swimming coach in Australia and the United States. Bloomfield’s research interests and experiences have led him to be a highly regarded lecturer and consultant in 22 countries.

    In 1979, Bloomfield was awarded Citizen of the Year in Western Australia and, in 1982, he received Member of the Order of Australia.