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Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology PDF

$74.00 USD

eBook
$74.00 USD

ISBN: 9781492578239

©2011

Page Count: 248

Access Duration: 10 Years

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Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology uses a mix of biochemistry, molecular biology, neurophysiology, and muscle physiology to provide a synthesis of current knowledge and research directions in the field. The first text devoted solely to the topic, Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology assists readers in identifying current directions in research and new avenues for exploration.

Recognizing the rapid changes occurring in the field of neuromuscular exercise physiology, the text provides readers with a foundation of knowledge while detailing the most recent findings. Though the text is written at an advanced level, the author succeeds at making the content accessible. Analyses of research findings and research applications are highlighted in special sidebars. Detailed illustrations and graphs assist readers in understanding research findings. Chapter summaries also help readers determine the key issues presented for each topic.

The author draws attention to a variety of important topics in the field, beginning with a discussion of motor unit types, muscle blood flow, and metabolic pathways in control of metabolism, including a special discussion of the effects of type 2 diabetes. Next, the topic of fatigue is discussed. The author explains possible peripheral and central contributors to fatigue. Chapters 6 and 7 focus on whole-body endurance training, including the effects of aerobic endurance training on the protein profiles of muscle fibers and on the central nervous system. Of particular interest is the applicability of research information to the exercise rehabilitation of individuals with compromised nervous system function, such as spinal cord injury, other trauma, and neuromuscular diseases. The final chapters are devoted to resistance training, including the phenotypic responses of muscles to isometric, slow isotonic, lengthening, and plyometric training. An overview of the effects of resistance training on the nervous system is offered along with clinical applications.

Within the dynamic field of neuromuscular exercise physiology, ideas of how nerves and muscles collaborate during acute and chronic exercise are continually evolving. Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology offers an authoritative perspective of current research in the field as it seeks to encourage discussion, further study, and new research directions.

Human Kinetics’ Advanced Exercise Physiology Series offers books for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as professionals in exercise science and kinesiology. These books highlight the complex interaction of the various systems both at rest and during exercise. Each text in this series offers a concise explanation of the system and details how each is affected by acute exercise and chronic exercise training. Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology is the third volume in the series.

Chapter 1. Muscle Fibers, Motor Units, and Motoneurons

Muscle Heterogeneity

Orderly Motor Unit Recruitment

Smaller Motoneurons Are More Excitable

Membrane Resistivity and Motoneuron Size

Other Factors Determining Action Potential Generation

Minimal Firing Rates and Afterhyperpolarization Durations

Motoneuron Current–Frequency Relationship and Excitability

Late Adaptation

Motoneuron PICs

Summary

Chapter 2. Motor Unit Recruitment During Different Types of Movements

Measuring Human Motor Unit Recruitment

Influence of Task

Slow-Ramp Isometric Contractions

Maintained Isometric Contractions

Isometric Contractions in Various Directions

Isometric Contractions Versus Movements

Lengthening Contractions

Cocontraction of Agonists and Antagonists

Unilateral Versus Bilateral Contractions

Rhythmic Complex Contractions

MVCs

Summary

Chapter 3. Muscle Blood Flow and Metabolism

Muscle Blood Flow

Muscle Metabolism

Summary

Chapter 4. Peripheral Factors in Neuromuscular Fatigue

Intramuscular Factors and Muscle Force

Involvement of Structures Other Than Muscle

Research From Animal Experiments

Summary

Chapter 5. Central Factors in Neuromuscular Fatigue

Motoneuron Activity During Sustained Contractions

Isometric Versus Anisometric Tasks

Rotation of Motor Units?

Summary

Chapter 6. Muscular Mechanisms in Aerobic Endurance Training

Chronic Muscle Stimulation

Coordination of Muscle Protein Systems

Pretranslational Control

Translational Control

Posttranslational Modifications

Simultaneous Expression of Isoforms

Adaptations Can Occur Ex Vivo

Adaptations Appear in a Specific Sequence

Thresholds of Activity for Adaptation

Chronic Stimulation and Atrophy

Metabolic Signals and the Adaptive Response

Degenerative and Regenerative Processes

Summary

Chapter 7. Neural Mechanisms in Aerobic Endurance Training

Adaptation of the Neuromuscular Junction

Adaptations to Endurance Training

Responses of Motoneurons

Adaptations of Spinal Cord Circuits

Summary

Chapter 8. Muscle Molecular Mechanisms in Strength Training

Acute Responses in Protein Synthesis and Degradation

Connective Tissue Responses

Role of Muscle Damage

Role of Dietary Supplements

Summary

Chapter 9. Muscle Property Changes in Strength Training

Increased Muscle Fiber Cross-Sectional Area

Fiber Type Composition

Muscle Fiber Number

Muscle Composition

Muscle Architecture

Muscle Fiber Ultrastructure

Evoked Isometric Contractile Properties

Changes in Muscle Force, Velocity, and Power

Fatigue Resistance

Role of Eccentric Contractions

Summary

Chapter 10. Neural Mechanisms in Strength Training

Gains in Strength Versus Muscle Girth

Strength Gains Show Task Specificity

Surface EMG Response During MVC

Imaginary Strength Training

Reflex Adaptations

Cross Education

Decreased Activation of Antagonists

Changes in Motor Unit Recruitment

Changes in Motor Cortex

Summary

Phillip F. Gardiner, PhD, is a professor and director of the Health, Leisure & Human Performance Research Institute at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg. He holds professorial positions in kinesiology and physiology and is a member of the Spinal Cord Research Center. Author of the Human Kinetics books Neuromuscular Aspects of Physical Activity (2001) and Skeletal Muscle Form and Function (coauthor, 2006), Dr. Gardiner has also published over 100 research articles on neuromuscular system adaptability.

In 2007, Dr. Gardiner received the highest award bestowed by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, the CSEP Honour Award. He was also awarded a Tier I Canada Research Chair at the University of Manitoba in 2002, which was subsequently renewed for an additional 7 years following peer review in 2009.

Dr. Gardiner served as the president of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology and as coeditor in chief of the Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. He is currently chair of the Advisory Board for the Institute of Musculoskeletal Health and Arthritis, part of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

Dr. Gardiner resides in Winnipeg, Manitoba, with his wife, Kalan, where he enjoys fly-fishing, brewing his own beer, playing piano, and wrestling with his two Labrador retrievers.

“The book manages to be comprehensive and highly detailed without being burdensome with too much unnecessary information. The cited research and its currency make the book highly credible and useful in today's classroom.”

—Doody’s Book Review (5-star review)

Phillip Gardiner

Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology PDF

$74.00 USD

Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology uses a mix of biochemistry, molecular biology, neurophysiology, and muscle physiology to provide a synthesis of current knowledge and research directions in the field. The first text devoted solely to the topic, Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology assists readers in identifying current directions in research and new avenues for exploration.

Recognizing the rapid changes occurring in the field of neuromuscular exercise physiology, the text provides readers with a foundation of knowledge while detailing the most recent findings. Though the text is written at an advanced level, the author succeeds at making the content accessible. Analyses of research findings and research applications are highlighted in special sidebars. Detailed illustrations and graphs assist readers in understanding research findings. Chapter summaries also help readers determine the key issues presented for each topic.

The author draws attention to a variety of important topics in the field, beginning with a discussion of motor unit types, muscle blood flow, and metabolic pathways in control of metabolism, including a special discussion of the effects of type 2 diabetes. Next, the topic of fatigue is discussed. The author explains possible peripheral and central contributors to fatigue. Chapters 6 and 7 focus on whole-body endurance training, including the effects of aerobic endurance training on the protein profiles of muscle fibers and on the central nervous system. Of particular interest is the applicability of research information to the exercise rehabilitation of individuals with compromised nervous system function, such as spinal cord injury, other trauma, and neuromuscular diseases. The final chapters are devoted to resistance training, including the phenotypic responses of muscles to isometric, slow isotonic, lengthening, and plyometric training. An overview of the effects of resistance training on the nervous system is offered along with clinical applications.

Within the dynamic field of neuromuscular exercise physiology, ideas of how nerves and muscles collaborate during acute and chronic exercise are continually evolving. Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology offers an authoritative perspective of current research in the field as it seeks to encourage discussion, further study, and new research directions.

Human Kinetics’ Advanced Exercise Physiology Series offers books for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as professionals in exercise science and kinesiology. These books highlight the complex interaction of the various systems both at rest and during exercise. Each text in this series offers a concise explanation of the system and details how each is affected by acute exercise and chronic exercise training. Advanced Neuromuscular Exercise Physiology is the third volume in the series.

Chapter 1. Muscle Fibers, Motor Units, and Motoneurons

Muscle Heterogeneity

Orderly Motor Unit Recruitment

Smaller Motoneurons Are More Excitable

Membrane Resistivity and Motoneuron Size

Other Factors Determining Action Potential Generation

Minimal Firing Rates and Afterhyperpolarization Durations

Motoneuron Current–Frequency Relationship and Excitability

Late Adaptation

Motoneuron PICs

Summary

Chapter 2. Motor Unit Recruitment During Different Types of Movements

Measuring Human Motor Unit Recruitment

Influence of Task

Slow-Ramp Isometric Contractions

Maintained Isometric Contractions

Isometric Contractions in Various Directions

Isometric Contractions Versus Movements

Lengthening Contractions

Cocontraction of Agonists and Antagonists

Unilateral Versus Bilateral Contractions

Rhythmic Complex Contractions

MVCs

Summary

Chapter 3. Muscle Blood Flow and Metabolism

Muscle Blood Flow

Muscle Metabolism

Summary

Chapter 4. Peripheral Factors in Neuromuscular Fatigue

Intramuscular Factors and Muscle Force

Involvement of Structures Other Than Muscle

Research From Animal Experiments

Summary

Chapter 5. Central Factors in Neuromuscular Fatigue

Motoneuron Activity During Sustained Contractions

Isometric Versus Anisometric Tasks

Rotation of Motor Units?

Summary

Chapter 6. Muscular Mechanisms in Aerobic Endurance Training

Chronic Muscle Stimulation

Coordination of Muscle Protein Systems

Pretranslational Control

Translational Control

Posttranslational Modifications

Simultaneous Expression of Isoforms

Adaptations Can Occur Ex Vivo

Adaptations Appear in a Specific Sequence

Thresholds of Activity for Adaptation

Chronic Stimulation and Atrophy

Metabolic Signals and the Adaptive Response

Degenerative and Regenerative Processes

Summary

Chapter 7. Neural Mechanisms in Aerobic Endurance Training

Adaptation of the Neuromuscular Junction

Adaptations to Endurance Training

Responses of Motoneurons

Adaptations of Spinal Cord Circuits

Summary

Chapter 8. Muscle Molecular Mechanisms in Strength Training

Acute Responses in Protein Synthesis and Degradation

Connective Tissue Responses

Role of Muscle Damage

Role of Dietary Supplements

Summary

Chapter 9. Muscle Property Changes in Strength Training

Increased Muscle Fiber Cross-Sectional Area

Fiber Type Composition

Muscle Fiber Number

Muscle Composition

Muscle Architecture

Muscle Fiber Ultrastructure

Evoked Isometric Contractile Properties

Changes in Muscle Force, Velocity, and Power

Fatigue Resistance

Role of Eccentric Contractions

Summary

Chapter 10. Neural Mechanisms in Strength Training

Gains in Strength Versus Muscle Girth

Strength Gains Show Task Specificity

Surface EMG Response During MVC

Imaginary Strength Training

Reflex Adaptations

Cross Education

Decreased Activation of Antagonists

Changes in Motor Unit Recruitment

Changes in Motor Cortex

Summary

Phillip F. Gardiner, PhD, is a professor and director of the Health, Leisure & Human Performance Research Institute at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg. He holds professorial positions in kinesiology and physiology and is a member of the Spinal Cord Research Center. Author of the Human Kinetics books Neuromuscular Aspects of Physical Activity (2001) and Skeletal Muscle Form and Function (coauthor, 2006), Dr. Gardiner has also published over 100 research articles on neuromuscular system adaptability.

In 2007, Dr. Gardiner received the highest award bestowed by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, the CSEP Honour Award. He was also awarded a Tier I Canada Research Chair at the University of Manitoba in 2002, which was subsequently renewed for an additional 7 years following peer review in 2009.

Dr. Gardiner served as the president of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology and as coeditor in chief of the Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. He is currently chair of the Advisory Board for the Institute of Musculoskeletal Health and Arthritis, part of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

Dr. Gardiner resides in Winnipeg, Manitoba, with his wife, Kalan, where he enjoys fly-fishing, brewing his own beer, playing piano, and wrestling with his two Labrador retrievers.

“The book manages to be comprehensive and highly detailed without being burdensome with too much unnecessary information. The cited research and its currency make the book highly credible and useful in today's classroom.”

—Doody’s Book Review (5-star review)

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