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Biologic Regulation of Physical Activity PDF

Author: Thomas Rowland

$67.00 USD

Ebook
$67.00 USD

ISBN: 9781492580614

©2017

Page Count: 224

Access Duration: 10 Years

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The benefits of a healthy lifestyle are well documented, yet many people continue to struggle with sedentary behavior and obesity. In Biologic Regulation of Physical Activity, Dr. Thomas W. Rowland posits a distinct possibility of the existence of a central biologic controller of activity. If harnessed, this mechanism could lead to breakthroughs in health science professionals’ quest for more effective ways of helping people be more active and, as a result, healthier.

Rowland is one of the most well-respected pediatric cardiologists in the United States. He has authored three other books and more than 150 journal articles and has served in several key national leadership positions in pediatric medicine. In Biologic Regulation of Physical Activity, Rowland uses his expertise, along with numerous references and direct quotes from expert witnesses, to provide a detailed account of how current research may support the existence of a biologic regulator—a mechanism in the brain that involuntarily controls biological processes—associated with physical activity. Rowland proposes a possible mechanism for such a control and explores the implications of this theory. This developing area of research and theory offers a new lens through which health professionals and those who research issues related to obesity, physical activity adherence, and sedentary behaviors can view their work.

The book moves methodically through the research, rationale, and implications of a biologic regulator of physical activity. In part I, Surveying the Evidence, readers are guided through a litany of research—both on humans and on animals—that provides support for the existence of a biologic regulator. This section synthesizes evidence from an interdisciplinary perspective, covering research on topics such as behavioral disorders, brain damage, lifetime activity patterns, and sex differences.

Part II, Rationale and Mechanisms details the possible biologic explanation for control of energy output through activity and proposes a mechanism by which it might function in order to maintain an energy in–energy out balance. The hypothesis presented in this section is that the body has a need for energy balance that leads to activity regulation, similar to how the body regulates appetite.

In part III, Implications of Biologic Regulation of Activity, some clear implications from current research, which may help health science professionals in their treatment and prevention efforts against patients’ obesity and inactivity, are discussed. Rowland also poses some critical questions for further research, if indeed a biologic controller of activity exists, such as how much effect a biologic controller might have on activity level as compared to environmental factors and whether this biologic regulator could be altered.

This book will initiate further discussion, examination, and research into the idea that physical activity may be, at least in part, controlled by a central biologic regulator. Further study may lead to a widespread realization that there is an involuntary biologic regulator of activity that, once fully understood, could lead researchers to discover alternative interventions in the fight against inactivity and obesity.

Part I. Surveying the Evidence

Chapter 1. Nature of Physical Activity

Measuring Physical Activity

Categorizing Physical Activity

Chapter 2. Physical Activity Through the Life Span

Human Beings

Physical Activity of Animals

Chapter 3. Effects of Sex

Sexual Maturation

Sex Differences in Infancy

Chapter 4. Neurochemical Models

Dopamine

Other Neurochemical Mediators

Chapter 5. Perturbations of Brain Function

Lesions in Animal Brains

Craniopharyngioma

Anorexia Nervosa

Restless Legs Syndrome

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Chapter 6. Organized Variability

Animal Circadian Rhythms

Human Circadian Rhythms

Other Variability

Chapter 7. Genetic Influences

Familial and Twin Studies

Animal Selection

Genetic Markers

Epigenetic Influences

Chapter 8. Physical Activity Play

Function of Physical Play

Neurological Basis

Part II. Rationale and Mechanisms

Chapter 9. Activity Regulation and the Need for Energy Balance

Energy Balance as a Biological Need

Role of Physical Activity in Energy Balance

Biologic Origin of Other Contributors to Energy Balance

Parallel Decline With Aging

Compensatory Responses in Energy Balance

Chapter 10. Mechanisms for Biologic Control

Feedback Systems

Proposed Biologic Control System for Habitual Physical Activity

Activity-Stat Versus Energy-Stat

Part III. Implications of Biologic Regulation of Activity

Chapter 11. Responses to Activity Interventions

Compensatory Changes in Physical Activity

Compensatory Changes in Caloric Intake

Long-Term Changes in Physical Activity Habits

Implications for Health Promotion

Chapter 12. Understanding Obesity: The Biologic Perspective

First Law of Thermodynamics

Obesity as an Error in Energy Balance

Behavioral Explanations for Energy Imbalance

Genetic Explanations for Energy Imbalance

Implications for Treatment and Prevention

Chapter 13. Altering the Biologic Control of Activity

Plasticity of Biologic Set Points

Can Cognitive Will Override Biologic Control?

Can Hedonistic Behavior Override Biologic Control?

Role of Spontaneous Physical Activity and NEAT

Pharmacological Manipulation of Physical Activity Regulators

Thomas W. Rowland, MD, is a pediatric cardiologist at the Baystate Medical Center in Springfield, Massachusetts. He is a professor of pediatrics at Tufts University School of Medicine and was a past adjunct professor of exercise science at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. A graduate of the University of Michigan Medical School, Rowland is board certified in pediatrics and pediatric cardiology by the American Board of Pediatrics.

Rowland, who has had more than 150 journal articles published, is the author of three books: Children’s Exercise Physiology, Second Edition; Tennisology: Inside the Science of Serves, Nerves, and On-Court Dominance; and The Athlete’s Clock. He has served as editor of the journal Pediatric Exercise Science and president of the North American Society for Pediatric Exercise Medicine (NASPEM) and was on the board of trustees of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). He is past president of the New England chapter of the ACSM and received the ACSM Honor Award in 1993.

Rowland is a competitive tennis player and distance runner. He and his wife, Margot, reside in Longmeadow, Massachusetts.

Thomas Rowland

Biologic Regulation of Physical Activity PDF

$67.00 USD

The benefits of a healthy lifestyle are well documented, yet many people continue to struggle with sedentary behavior and obesity. In Biologic Regulation of Physical Activity, Dr. Thomas W. Rowland posits a distinct possibility of the existence of a central biologic controller of activity. If harnessed, this mechanism could lead to breakthroughs in health science professionals’ quest for more effective ways of helping people be more active and, as a result, healthier.

Rowland is one of the most well-respected pediatric cardiologists in the United States. He has authored three other books and more than 150 journal articles and has served in several key national leadership positions in pediatric medicine. In Biologic Regulation of Physical Activity, Rowland uses his expertise, along with numerous references and direct quotes from expert witnesses, to provide a detailed account of how current research may support the existence of a biologic regulator—a mechanism in the brain that involuntarily controls biological processes—associated with physical activity. Rowland proposes a possible mechanism for such a control and explores the implications of this theory. This developing area of research and theory offers a new lens through which health professionals and those who research issues related to obesity, physical activity adherence, and sedentary behaviors can view their work.

The book moves methodically through the research, rationale, and implications of a biologic regulator of physical activity. In part I, Surveying the Evidence, readers are guided through a litany of research—both on humans and on animals—that provides support for the existence of a biologic regulator. This section synthesizes evidence from an interdisciplinary perspective, covering research on topics such as behavioral disorders, brain damage, lifetime activity patterns, and sex differences.

Part II, Rationale and Mechanisms details the possible biologic explanation for control of energy output through activity and proposes a mechanism by which it might function in order to maintain an energy in–energy out balance. The hypothesis presented in this section is that the body has a need for energy balance that leads to activity regulation, similar to how the body regulates appetite.

In part III, Implications of Biologic Regulation of Activity, some clear implications from current research, which may help health science professionals in their treatment and prevention efforts against patients’ obesity and inactivity, are discussed. Rowland also poses some critical questions for further research, if indeed a biologic controller of activity exists, such as how much effect a biologic controller might have on activity level as compared to environmental factors and whether this biologic regulator could be altered.

This book will initiate further discussion, examination, and research into the idea that physical activity may be, at least in part, controlled by a central biologic regulator. Further study may lead to a widespread realization that there is an involuntary biologic regulator of activity that, once fully understood, could lead researchers to discover alternative interventions in the fight against inactivity and obesity.

Part I. Surveying the Evidence

Chapter 1. Nature of Physical Activity

Measuring Physical Activity

Categorizing Physical Activity

Chapter 2. Physical Activity Through the Life Span

Human Beings

Physical Activity of Animals

Chapter 3. Effects of Sex

Sexual Maturation

Sex Differences in Infancy

Chapter 4. Neurochemical Models

Dopamine

Other Neurochemical Mediators

Chapter 5. Perturbations of Brain Function

Lesions in Animal Brains

Craniopharyngioma

Anorexia Nervosa

Restless Legs Syndrome

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Chapter 6. Organized Variability

Animal Circadian Rhythms

Human Circadian Rhythms

Other Variability

Chapter 7. Genetic Influences

Familial and Twin Studies

Animal Selection

Genetic Markers

Epigenetic Influences

Chapter 8. Physical Activity Play

Function of Physical Play

Neurological Basis

Part II. Rationale and Mechanisms

Chapter 9. Activity Regulation and the Need for Energy Balance

Energy Balance as a Biological Need

Role of Physical Activity in Energy Balance

Biologic Origin of Other Contributors to Energy Balance

Parallel Decline With Aging

Compensatory Responses in Energy Balance

Chapter 10. Mechanisms for Biologic Control

Feedback Systems

Proposed Biologic Control System for Habitual Physical Activity

Activity-Stat Versus Energy-Stat

Part III. Implications of Biologic Regulation of Activity

Chapter 11. Responses to Activity Interventions

Compensatory Changes in Physical Activity

Compensatory Changes in Caloric Intake

Long-Term Changes in Physical Activity Habits

Implications for Health Promotion

Chapter 12. Understanding Obesity: The Biologic Perspective

First Law of Thermodynamics

Obesity as an Error in Energy Balance

Behavioral Explanations for Energy Imbalance

Genetic Explanations for Energy Imbalance

Implications for Treatment and Prevention

Chapter 13. Altering the Biologic Control of Activity

Plasticity of Biologic Set Points

Can Cognitive Will Override Biologic Control?

Can Hedonistic Behavior Override Biologic Control?

Role of Spontaneous Physical Activity and NEAT

Pharmacological Manipulation of Physical Activity Regulators

Thomas W. Rowland, MD, is a pediatric cardiologist at the Baystate Medical Center in Springfield, Massachusetts. He is a professor of pediatrics at Tufts University School of Medicine and was a past adjunct professor of exercise science at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. A graduate of the University of Michigan Medical School, Rowland is board certified in pediatrics and pediatric cardiology by the American Board of Pediatrics.

Rowland, who has had more than 150 journal articles published, is the author of three books: Children’s Exercise Physiology, Second Edition; Tennisology: Inside the Science of Serves, Nerves, and On-Court Dominance; and The Athlete’s Clock. He has served as editor of the journal Pediatric Exercise Science and president of the North American Society for Pediatric Exercise Medicine (NASPEM) and was on the board of trustees of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). He is past president of the New England chapter of the ACSM and received the ACSM Honor Award in 1993.

Rowland is a competitive tennis player and distance runner. He and his wife, Margot, reside in Longmeadow, Massachusetts.

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